An-Najaf Al-‘Ashraf City

 
 

It’s Location and Borders:

The names are given to it and the original reasons of finding them:

It’s History before Islam, and before Beings has been created:

An-Najaf Establishment and its original reasons:

The Holy Grave location and fixing it:

Ahlil-Baiyt visit the Grave secretly:

Al-Mash-Had (Najaf) town description:

The Holy Nave description:

The Holy Shrine description:

Najaf Misfortunes and its inhabitants' leaving it:

 

 

 

 

The Authority (leadership) Returning To Najaf

 

The Included Stores of Najaf inside the Walls.

Its Main Features.

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) Holy Shrine.

The Public Libraries.

From the Memory of History.

Library of the Literary union association.

Ath-Thari’ah Author's Library.

Library of Jurisprudence Collage.

The Domestic Administration Library.

‘Al-Hunoosh Library.

- Imam ‘Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (peace be upon him) Library.

‘Ayatullah Al-Burujurdi Library.

 The Najaf university of anthology library.

      Al-‘Alamain At-Toosi and Bahril-‘Uloom Library.

     Al-Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) Library.

The Schools and the places of study.

Places of Study.


 

 

An-Najaf Al-‘Ashraf City

 

 

An-Najaf Al-Ashraf is an historical holy city, and recently it is an ancient place of science and religion; it is established round the Holy Grave of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) at the following of Al-Kufa city, when it became known publicly at the end of the second century A.H., so; it inherited it’s dignity and popularity from Al-Kufa city, while, it is one of the big cities of Iraq today, and one of the centers of the Iraqi capital cities.

 

 

It’s Location and Borders:

Najaf city is located at the end of western desert of Iraq at the south-west of Baghdad in a distance of 160 km. From it..., and in 44○ and 19 minutes longitude, and in 31○ 59 minutes latitude, its high is 70m. Over the sea level... the lowland of Najaf is a sea, which limits it and extends to Ash-Shabakeh division and the borders of Saudi Arabia, and from the south and south-west the two towns are located, Al-Hireh and Abi-Sukhair in a distance of 18km from Najaf, and from the east is Al-Kufeh city limits it in a distance of 10km from its Mosqu... and Al-Haidaryeh (Khaan Al-Hamaad) division in a distance of 30km...Najaf area equals to 1328 km...As for its official borders as a province is as follows:

Arabia Saudi kingdom and Al-Anbar province limit it from the west and northern-west sides, Kerbal’a province limits it from the northern-east side, and the two provinces Babil and Al-Quadisiyeh limit it between the east and the southern-east sides. And it consists of three districts and seven divisions and their area equals 27494km.., rather; we have no concern to illustrate all its details of history.

 

 

The names are given to it and the original reasons of finding them:

Najaf has been called by number of additional names, they were derived from its location and its nature; the name of Najaf according to the linguists’ commentaries is as follows: It means the knoll and place that no flood can go over it. They also commented as follows: Najaf at the end of Kufa is as a dam, that prevents the water to flow and go over the houses of Kufa and its cemeteries.[1]

 

 

Al-Ghari is of its names: which means the good from every thing. Al-Ghari also means, the thing is painted by the glue, and means that the two buildings like the two hermitages, which appear from the back direction of Al-Kufa, that some of Al-Hihreh kings (like Al-Munthir bin Manis-Sam’a) built them.[2]

Al-Hamawi commented as follows:

It is probably that; name of Al-Ghari is derived from each of these two possibilities.[3]

Najaf has other several names, they are as follows:

Al-Mashad; which Ibn Jubair and Ibn Batooteh mentioned through their trips, it is a calling of a whole by the name of part, the most considerable and honorable of it, is the Holy Grave aspect, rather; this name still currently used to this moment by the populars of this town, then; every popular of this town are called in relation to this town by the term (Mash-hadi) for the man and (Misha-Hideh) for more than one. And Najaf has other names; some of them are known historically, and some of them are mentioned through the narratives of the Imams from Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them), like:

Banquiyeh, Al-Judi[4], Al-Gharbiy, Al-Lisaan, Ar-Rabweh, At-Toor, and the back wards of Al-Kufa City.

 

 

It’s History before Islam, and before Beings has been created:

It is mentioned through the narratives of the Imams of Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them) as follows: The Grave of Adam and Noah (peace be upon them) are located in Najaf area, and Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was buried near them according to his instructions and will, and there are tow graves of HUD and Salih the Prophets at a distance of one km from the location of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Grave, and their height is a remainders of an ancient mountain, the mountain, which the son of Noah moved and refuged towards it, that was mentioned through the saying of the (Almighty Allah) in the Holy Qur’an (I will soon have my abode to a mountain, that shall safeguard me from the water). Said he, (Today there is no safeguard from the Command of Allah)[5]

 

 

That mountain has been continued to Ash-Sham region, then it was destroyed..., other news are mentioned but it is impossible to believe with its reality from outward and inward, while its goal is one,  the sign of holiness and honor of this City anciently is fixed.[6]

And historically it is known that: this area was a station of Al-Hireh and Al-Lakhmiyeen kings in role of pre Islam... and it was a place which the Christian monasteries inhabited, about its affairs the clergymen and the monks are responsible, from them is Ibn Maz’uq, Mart Marum and Hanna monasteries, and these monastries still found through the Islamic period even after Al-Kufa was established in the year 17A.H., includes that the historians mentioned as follows: Some of Al-Kufa jesters and poets used to visit them for the festivity and romp purpose...and important events pased on this area through the Islamic period:

In 12 A.H. Khalid bin Al-Waleed came to this region after Al-Yamameh conquest intended to attack Al-Hira city, therefore, its inhabitants fortified themselves by the white palace from him, thus, Al-Buwaib event took place in it. And in 14 A.H. An-Najaf was an area of struggle between Muslims and Persians, and in (Banquiya) region (one of Najaf’s names) the poll tax was taken from the Persians for the first time in Islam. Rather; actually the beautifulness of its tourist nature, its temperate weather, beautiful gullies, the hunting multitudes and its mounds, and the view of the sea still lasted beside it till the role of Al-Wathiqu Caliph, and the beginning of residence in it, is shown in the wonderful depiction of it through the poet of Ishaqu bin Abraham Al-Mawsili, who died in 235 A.H., and who accompanied Al-Wathiqu through his emergency for promenading and hunting in this area, he commented as follows:

I have neither seen the people live in more pure air and more nourishing on a flat nor on a mountain than in Najaf, as if its soil be Musk, that its perfume and ambergris spread throughout its space, the perfumer blended it with a shell, it is surrounded by a land and a sea from its sides, then; the desert is at one side and the sea is at other side.[7]

And among that orchards through them a river is full of running water, its flow sound like the peal from which you receive a perfume in the morning, which cures the ailing man, if he was effected by disease, so he expects the recovery by the way of it, if the recovery was from the ailment and chronic disease. [8]

 

 

An-Najaf Establishment and its original reasons:

Imam Ali the prince of believers (peace be upon him) camped in Al-Kufa after Aj-Jamal battle took place, and elected it as a capital of his Government in the year 36 A.H. for the purposes of political and military elements related to its important location in the middle of the Islamic world. The back of Al-Kufa (Ath-Thawiyeh) became a cemetery of Muslims in Kufa, among them a great number of companions and followers of the Prophet...and the first one, who was buried in Najaf the lofty Companion Khabbab bin Al-Art, on who Imam Ali (peace be upon him) prayed, and that happened in the year 37 A.H., and it happened that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was killed at his prayer niche in Kufa Mosque in the year 40 A.H. at the nineteenth night of Ramadhan month.

 

 

The Holy Grave location and fixing it:

Three days before the day of his martyrdom, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) entrusted to his elder son Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him) to be buried in a grave which he prepared and the land surrounding it at the  back of Al-Kufa he bought, it is located at the following of Ath-Thawiyeh[9], as for the person who comes from Al-Kufa direction, and at the back of Al-Qua’im near to Najaf [10], near Najaf [11]at the left side from Al-Ghari direction, and the right side from Al-Hireh direction, between the white Ath-Thaquawat [12], the Graves of HUD and Salih the Prophets are near My Grave, the Graves of ‘Adam and Noah [13]are neighboring me.

Ali (peace be upon him) was buried secretly under the darkness of night for the precaution of his grave exposing by the way of the U’maids and Rebels (Kharijits). The two Imams Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) and their brother Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyeh and Abdul-Lah bin J’afar (may God be pleased with them) took upon themselves the burial of Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) funeral, and a group of the honest Shi’a followed them, who viewed a dazzling marvel at his grave which shows the Imam’s superiority.

 

 

Ahlil-Baiyt visit the Grave secretly:

The Imams of Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them) still visit the Holy tomb of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) successively accompanying their honest friends, they visit it secretly and informed people about it too, and arouse their interest in visit him. includes that, the two Imams Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) already visited him, and Imam Ali bin Al-Hussein Zainil-‘Abideen visited him too, while he accompanied with his son Muhammad Al-Baquir (peace be upon them), and composed the eminent Ameen Allah text of visiting him, and Imam Muhammad Al-Baquir (peace be upon him) visited him other time accompanied with his son As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him), and Zaid bin Ali (may God be pleased with him) accompanied with Abi Hamzeh Ath-Thumali and Abi Qureh one of Imam Ali’s companions, and when Al-Mansoor brought Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) to Al-Hireh, he visited him several times accompanied with some of his followers every time, and one time he lent Safwaan Aj-Jammal money to rebuild the Tomb..., and among those who visited him and accompanied with Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) his son Isma’il, and from his followers Aban bin Taghlib, Muhammad bin Muslim, Safwaan Aj-Jammal, Muhammad bin M’aroof Al-Hilali, Sulaiman bin Khalid, Abul-Faraj As-Sindi, Al-Mu’alla bin Khanees, Zaid bin Talheh, Abdul-Lah Ar-Radhawi, Al-Mufadh-Dhal bin U’mar’, Yunus bin Dhubiyan, and from the Imams, Imam Musa Al-Kadhum (peace be upon him) visited him in the year 149 A.H., Imam Ar-Ridha (peace be upon him) in the year 199 A.H., Muhammad Aj-Jawaad in the year 221 A.H., and Ali Al-Haadi (peace be upon him) in the year 234 A.H., and some of them composed texts of the grave visit, so that their followers can benefit from them in case they visited it, includes that, these texts are dictated in the books of visit the graves and supplications.[14]

And when Al-Mansoor became aware about Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) and some of his followers, who used to visit the grave successively, then, the common people, he didn’t know about its location, and he intended to be sure about it himself, so he went alone accompanied with some of his close friends and servants, then he issued a command by digging the earth in the position where the grave located, and he used to visit him, and talked to him (Imam Ali) gently, asking him the pardon because of the oppression by which he effected his sons, and they (the historian) mentioned as follows:

Dawood bin Ali also wronged them, then he saw a magnificent marvel, which caused him terrified, therefore; he commanded by the grave to be built, then he performed a box and put it on the grave. And through the reign of Ar-Rasheed -when he used to emerge for hunting purpose in the desert- he saw a marvel, which imposed him on his opinion change about this grave, and he became humble, then he built a white Tomb over the grave, and performed a green jar on the top of it, and that took place in 170 A.H., and he used to visit him and pray near him asking him the pardon like Al-Mansoor when he treated his son wrongly. And from those who visited the grave of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) through that period Isa bin J’afar. And from the Caliphs Al-Muqutafi and An-Nasir also visited him, who delivered subsidies, and money...Al-Mustansir and uncounted number of the Scholars, Sultans, poets, and dignitaries visited him. [15]

At the end of the second century some of Shi’a started to dwell near the Grave of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and they began to burry their deads near him, An-Najaf became a little town, while the third century is still and not finished. People mentioned that: Muhammad bin Zaid Al-‘Alawi – the ruler of Tibristan, who died in 278 A.H. - built a vault over the Holy Grave for the jurists, the readers, and the poor people through the role of Al-Mu’tadhid...and ‘Adhd Ad-Dawleh Al-Buwaiyhi, who died in 372 A.H., he built a great building and greater vault than the previous one in 338 A.H., and he built the first wall that contained the town of Najaf completely. It seemed that this vault is the same vault, which Al-Hussein bin Al-Hajjaj, who died in 491 A.H. mentioned through his poems, when he addressed Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as follows:

O, the owner of the radiate vault in Najaf.

Whoever visited your grave and asked for recovery near you, so, he was recovered.

Visit Aba Hassanin Al-Haadi, perhaps that you shall win by reward, acceptance, and approach.[16]

Rather, they didn’t show us how many was the number of people who lived in it, when ‘Adhud Ad-Dawleh visited it, whereas; they mentioned that they enumerated the Alawids only, so they were one thousand and seven hundred names... then, if the fact was so, thus, the Alawids would ordinary never constitute unless a small ratio, then, how many would the number of people at that time? Especially; they mentioned five thousand Dirham had been delivered on the neighbors save the Alawids...then, I assume that the walls which are built around the town through this period and at the following of it have an influence on the people's emigration to it from Al-Kufa especially for what this town provides of safe and inaccessibility...therefore; a great importance is given to these walls – throughout the history of this town-, Abu Muhammad Al-Hassan bin Sahlaan the Buwaiyhian the minister built the second wall around Al-Mash-Had (Najaf) in 400 A.H., but they didn’t show that he made a change in the building was erected over the Holy Grave or the blessed vault, which ‘Athud Ad-Dawleh built... so it remained stands to the role of An-Nasir Lideen Allah the Abbasid Caliph, who took upon himself wide structural actions completion, and he reformed the sides of the Alawid Holy Shrine, but; he didn’t mention about any other appointed one, or a famous authority who took upon himself this action fulfillment, but; it appeared that fulfilling it was by the way of a collective action.

An-Najaf town already flourished a great flourishing through the fifth century and after it till the middle of the ninth century, and it became developed constructionally and commercially, it inherited Al-Kufa in the scientific and population fields, therefore; many of its inhabitants emigrated to Najaf – especially the students of science of it- for the sake of safety from the rebels attack and the tribes’ invasion, and the rulers’ pursuit; so they took refuge with the well fortified walls of Mash-Had (An-Najaf), and with sanctity of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and great rank of the Islamic theological centre it required because of the emigration that his eminence the authority of the sect Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi to it in 448 A.H., then, it became the centre of religious leadership, which is shown to us through the description, that the Maghribian migratory Ibn Batootah left for us, who died in 779 A.H. he visited the town through a tripe, which, he completed in 756 A.H. through it, he described Najaf, the Holy Shrine, and the religious schools around it...

 

 

Al-Mash-Had (Najaf) town description:

Ibn Batootah expressed about An-Najaf town as follows:

We settled in the town (Najaf) nearby Ali bin Abi Talib’s Mash-Had. It has good and clean markets, we entered into it through the door of the wall face to face to Al-Hadhreh (the outer door of the wall of the town), thus we faced the market of the grocers, the cookers, and the bakers, then we faced the market of the fruits, the market of the tailors, then the market of spice dealers, then we are led to the door of the Holy shrine (Al-Hadhreh) meant by the (door of the nave surrounding the Grave), here is the Grave of Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) as they claim, and beside it the schools, corners, and halls are instructed in best type, and their walls are built by the faience which is more alike with the (Zeej) in our buildings rather; its color is more brilliant and its design is better.

 

 

The Holy Nave description:

He added: from the doorway of the Holy Shrine we led to a great School [17] that the students, and the mystics of Shi’a live in, and there was three entertaining days of bread, meat, and date, twice a day for every visitor, who comes to it. And from that school it is possible to go through the gate of Tomb on which, the doorkeepers, the Chiefs, and the servants stand on their feet to meet him, whenever the visitor comes to one of them or to all them, and according to the visitor’s rank, they will stand close to him at the doorstep, and ask for a permission for him as follows:

By the command of yours O Prince of the believers, this weak servant asks you for a permission to come into the Iliyeh Rawdheh, then; if You permitted him to come in, otherwise; he would return back, even if he was not worthy with this permission, then; you are worthy with the noble qualities and covering.

 

 

The Holy Shrine description:

He commented as follows: The Holy Shrine is made of silver, and the two jambs are also made of silver, so; the visitor has to enter into the dome which is furnished with various kinds of silky carpets, and the likeness of it, and there are golden lamps, and others are made of silver, big and little ones, and a square mastaba was located at the middle of the dome, it was covered by wood on which sheets of inscribed gold are done masterly, and nailed by nails are made of silver, which covered the wood, in a style that no part of it seems to the watcher, and its height was less than the fathom, and over it there are three graves, they claim that one of them is the grave of ‘Adam (peace be upon him), the second one is the grave of Noah (peace be upon him), and the third is the grave of Ali (may God be pleased with him), and between the graves there are golden basins and some of them are made of silver, they are full of rosewater, musk, and various kinds of perfume, the visitor immerses his hand and anoints his face by it seeking the blessings, and there is other door of the dome, its step is made of silver, and over the door there are hung curtains, made of colored silk, this door leads to a mosque, which is furnished by beautiful rugs, its walls and ceiling are covered by silky veils, and it has four doors, their doorsteps are made of silver, on them there are hung silky curtains...then he added: and this holy Shrine has Thaumaturgies etc.... [18]

In addition to that, Ibn Battooteh’s saying concerned to Najaf shows it as follows:

It is truly the best of Iraqi towns, with more popuplars, and its buildings are well performed. Then, he gives a description about what Najaf reached of expansion and prosperity through the eighth century, which is a common description, and didn’t assume the number of settlers, or the number of the houses it contained..., whereas, some of researchers assumed its houses through that period and after it –save the garages and the schools- by seven thousand houses approximately...and when the first Sha-h Ismail Safawi, who died in 930 A.H. took reign over Baghdad, he hurried to visit Najaf, and looked after its necessities, and instructed a river near it, which is then known by (the Sha-h river), it flew from the Euphrates river through a special canal under the ground..., so; he put an end to the littleness problem of water, as a result of that Najaf exhilarated excellently through his role and after it by two decades..., thereafter; the trials and the calamities passed over it successively.

 

 

Najaf Misfortunes and its inhabitants' leaving it:

One of the historians comments: Various roles passed over Najaf Successively and different situations of the populars multitudes, killing them, the migration movement to it and its stoppage, therefore; the movement of migration to it and the regions neighboring it declined and stopped. And from that attacking it by the infidels the exaggerators of Ali bin Al-Mutamahdi Muhammad Al-Mush’ash’i, who was killed in Bahbahaan in 861 A.H. and killing a great deal of its inhabitants, the holy Shrine spoiling, and taking it as bureau and a kitchen of his own, and resided in it for six months in which he used to exercised the depravity and corruption. Najaf suffered from several plagues, and epidemics with intensive effect through the tenth and the eleventh centuries, and it suffered from the influences of the violent attacks, that took place between As-Safawiyeen and the U’thmaniyeen, and it is hurt because of the waters shortage through long periods, and the inroads of some tribes heads over tasked it..., which carried the majority of its inhabitants on leaving it, even that the Portuguese wanderer (Takseera), who visited it in 1013 A.H. commented that: (It seemed to me that its houses –he surely meant, the inhibited houses of them- are not more than six hundred houses, while they were six thousand or seven masterly built houses). And it seems that, the populars emigration –in spite of that- was not extended or conclusive, but, whenever the populars saw a relief, they had to return back to their first home town.., and it deals with this meaning, which he mentioned about Najaf town blockade in 1032 A.H. through the days of the U’thmanid Sultan Saleem by the way of the Greek, and it is incredible to imagine a blockade town, which didn’t include save six hundred houses. Which enforced some of the Indian kings –after that- to build a new coherent wall around Najaf in 1039 A.H., and that was the third wall. And the theological center of science still continued and stationed through the most arduous situations, so; distinguished scholars excelled in knowledge, and from them: As-Sayyid Hassan bin Hamzeh Al-Musawi who lived in 862 A.H., Ash-Shaikh Abraham Al-Kaf’ami, who died in 900 A.H., Ash-Sheikh Ali Al-Kurki, the second investigator, who died in 940 A.H. the composer of Jami’a Al-Maquasid book. Sheikh Ahmad Al-Ardabeeli, who died in 993 A.H. the composer of Zubdat Al-Bayaan book, the prince As-Sayyid Ali bin Al-Hujjeh Ash-Sholistani, who died in 1060 A.H., the composer of Tawdheeh Al-Maqual. Ash-Shaikh Ahmad Aj-Jaza’iri, who died in 1150 A.H., the composer of Quala’id Ad-Durar book. Therefore; the scientific movement transference from Najaf never means that it reached to an end, rather; it exposes about its weakness, and the authority rising in other place than it, like Qum, Mash-Had, Isfahan, Hilleh, and Kerbal’a.

 

 

The Authority (leadership) Returning To Najaf

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the religious authority returned back to Najaf after it remained in Hilleh for a long period, then in Kerbal’a through the existence of Ash-Shaikh Al-Waheed Al-Bahbahani, who died in 1205 A.H., although it continued there after his death by the hand of his student (the composer of Ar-Riyadh book), who died in 1216 A.H.; whereas, Najaf used to compete with Kerbal’a by his two brilliant authoritative students, As-Sayyid Mhdi Bahril-U’loom, who died in 1212 A.H., and Ash-Shaikh J’afar Kashif Al-Ghit’a, who died in 1228 A.H.. and the scientific and literary movement flourished through their periods in Najaf by a matchless type, and the poets were enumerated through that period in Najaf, they were two hundred poets, and the life manner refreshed in the city commonly, and it returned swarmed with the arrivers and the visitors.., but it was exposed to truculent ruthless attacks in the years 1216, 1221, and 1226 A.H. by the way of Wahabies, so they tore down the Holy Grave and plundered its contains, killed the populars, violated the holiness, and damaged the city...Ruther; (the Sublime) Allah drove their offense away from the city, and granted it with security and peace, and the science inhabitants, and its populars for two reasons:

Firstly: Arming its inhabitants especially the students of science by the command and leadership of Ash-Shaikh Kashfil-Quta’ (May Allah sanctify his spirit), who brought them the current and sufficient weapons on that day, and he ordered by training them on it, therefore, they used to emerge to the Sahara between Najaf and Sahleh every day for the purpose of training, while they were carrying the weapon, and he considered training on it as a religious obligation for the purpose of defendance, even that the honorable As-Sayyid Jawaad Al-‘Amili, who died in --- A.H. – the author of Miftahil-Karameh book- composed a message concerned to the defendence duty in behalf of An-Najaf, and he was one of the brilliant students of Kashif Al-Ghita’, and the teacher of Aj-Jawahir book author.. Ash-Shaikh Kashfil-Ghita’ used to encourage the students of science to train the sport and the famous plays track and field of that time, and he particularized part of his home for this purpose...but thereafter, they misused carrying the weapon, and its minus influence resulted in the tribal sedition happening, which is known by Ash-Shimirt and Az-Zigirt, which extended for long time.

Secondly: One of An-Najaf security reasons is its last wall building, and the deep trench around it, on which incredible amount was spent at that time by As-Sadr Al-‘Adham Nidham Ad-Dawleh the grandfather of the Najafian ‘Al Nidham, who was the minister of Fat-h Ali Shaah. It was completed in 1226 A.H. before the death of Ash-Shaikh Kashif Al-Ghita’ by two years, then Najaf became unapproachable castle by it, that no force can attack it through that time, then; this wall remained existed at the back of Ar-Rabitah Al-‘Adabiyeh till 1980 A.D. and in 1325 A.H. 1908 A.D. a domestic company established a railway for carriages are pulled by horses (Tramway) which connects between Najaf and Kufa, and it remained till 1365 A.H./ 1948 A.D., then it was removed after the cars of the travelers carrying became available. In 1348 A.H. / 1929 A.D. the pipelines of water are laid from Kufa to Najaf, and they are connected to pumps, which pump the water through the pipes to Najaf, after it depended on the canals –which how quickly fail- and on wells.

 

 


The Included Stores of Najaf inside the Walls

Najaf used to live inside the wall till 1350 A.H. / 1931 A.D., and it consisted of four districts as follows:

1-     Al-‘Ala, which is called by Al-Mishraqu district.

2-     Al-Imareh, which is the biggest district in Najaf.

3-     Al-Huwaish district.

4-     Al-Buraqu district.

In 1350 A.H. the topical administration (administrative district) opened five gates through the wall of the city, and it planned to establish new districts out of the wall, so the first Aj-Jidaideh is established till Al-Madeeneh Street, then the second Jidaideh was established. And in 1959 A.D. it was planned to establish new districts like: As-S’ad district, Al-Hannaneh district, then the expansion successively continued even it reached its climax between 1980-1988 A.D., and from these districts: Al-Mukhadhar district, Al-Muthnna district, Jamaal Abdil-Naasir district, Al-‘Ameer district, Az-Zahr’a district, Al-Quadisiyeh district, Al-Murahhaleen district, Aj-Jami’ah district, An-Nft district, Adh-Dhubbat district, Al-Atibb’a district, Al-Hindiyeh district, Al-‘Askari district, An-Nasir district, As-Siheh district, Al-Karameh district, Al-Ghadeer district, Al-‘Adil district, Al-‘Ansaar district, Al-Hawr’a Zainab district, Ash-Shirteh district, Hannon district, Al-‘Afghani district, As-Sina’i district, Aj-Jazeereh district, Ash-Shiwafi’ district, and other developed districts.

1-its streets.

2-its tombs.

3-its Mosques.

 

 

Its Main Features

The ‘Alawi Holy Shrine, which is located in the middle of the ancient city, that is enclosed completely, as for today, its location is at the western side of the city on a distance of one km. From the plateau (An-Najaf), as fore the building, which still raised over the Holy Grave today, is the building that Safi the grandson of the first Shah Abbas in 1047 A.H./ 1637 A.D., rather, he performed many developments on it, like the gilding, which is achieved by the way of As-Sultan Nadir Shah commandment, and the reestablishment continued through our existed age, and from that the Holy Tomb rebuilding in 1392 A.H./1972 A.D. by the way of Al-Hajj Muhammad Rashaad Mirzeh one of Najaf Ashraf populars. And around the grave and in its stores there is unique rarest of masterpieces with great moral, technical, and material value, then we will appoint to them after the building description, and if it shortened a great shortness from presenting the figure which approaches to its reality, then this is not achieved unless by the way of observation.

 

 

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) Holy Shrine

It is located in the middle of the old Najaf, which is the most significant part of its signs, and the noble Grave is located in the middle of the Holy shrine which is in a square figure, its sides length is thirteen meters, and its floor is flagged with the glazed Italian marble, the walls are covered to about two meters from the floor by the marble, and the rested part of wall over the marble is covered by the colored mirrors, and the splendid geometric decoration by the mosaic with beautiful forms, and in the middle of the home of the building, the noble Grave is located, on which a box was located, the box is made of inlaid teak by the ivory on which some of the verses of the Holy Qur’an are inscribed, that was surrounded by two lines of windows, the first one is made of the polished stainless steel and the glass, and the second one is made of silver on the top of it there is a crown is made of gold, and that starts by a row of beautiful lamps from the four directions, and the quantity of silver in it is estimated by two million weight, and of gold is estimated by ten thousand weight, whereas, lines of poems by Ibn Abil-Hadeed and some lines from As-Sayyid Al-Himyari poems are written at the top of it. The room of the Holy shrine has four gates lead to the portico, two of them are made of enameled gold in front of the golden gate of portico, which is enameled also, and other two gates are made of silver from the northern side , and in front of every two gates a big window down looks over the portico.

Over the Holy Grave a wonderful, wide, and high dome, 35 meters high from the floor of the Holy room, its foundation perimeter is 50 meter, and its diameter is about 16 meter, and the dome has twelve windows, are decorated from inside by the wonderful mosaic with inscripted names of the infallible Imams (peace be upon them), some of the Qur’anic verses, and stanzas of the Arabic poems, that praised the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), and it is covered from the outward by pure gold, and the number of the golden tiles, that decorated it is assumed by 7777 tiles.

 The Grave is located at the middle of a portico, its high is 17 meters and its length is 31 meters and its width is 30 meters decorated by the mirrors and the mirrors with various geometrical forms, it is inscribed with some of the Qur’anic verses, and it has four doors, two of them lead to the golden hall, which is known by (At-Tarmeh), the main part of it is located at the middle of the hall facing the clock of the Holy nave, it is made of enameled gold, the Holy prophetic tradition is written on the high part of it: (Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali, they will never be departed till they will come to me near the Basin), and the little one of them is made of silver, it is located beneath the northern minaret, and third gate is facing the Quiblah of the Holy nave, and fourth gate is facing At-Toosi door of the Holy nave also, these two door are made of silver, and a golden hall is known by (At-Tarimeh) related to the hall from the east side at the main entry of the Holy shrine, it rises up one meter from the earth of the nave, its length is 33 meters. And at the two sides of the hall two minarets with cylindrical forms, their height is 35 meters, and the foundation perimeter of every one of them approaches to 8 meters, and its diameter is 2.5 meters, and they are covered by gold, and they encircle by the Holy shrine.

Ariwaqu is a great yard is known by (Sahn) its height is seventeen meters, its northern side length is seventy- four meters, the southern side is 57 meters length, and the western side is eighty-four meters length, it is decorated with faience, which is variegated with marvelous figures on which the Qur’anic verses are scripted, and it contained about one hundred rooms, and four main passages facing each other, which are five doors of the yard as follows:

1-         As-Sa’eh (o’clock) door, which is facing the greater market from the east side, and it is considered as the main door.

2-         As-Salaam door, which is located besides the door of As-Sa’eh facing (Al-‘Abaiychiyeh) the frocks sellers.

3-         At-Toosi door, which is faced to At-Toosi street towards the northern direction.

4-         (Al-Faraj) the release door, which is facing Al-‘Imareh market, towards the west direction.

5-         Al-Quiblah door, which is facing Ar-Rasool street, towards the southern direction.

A great o‘clock with bell, which is hung over the main door of the Holy nave, and it has four faces over which a gilded dome with pure gold.

 

 


The Public Libraries

There are many libraries in Najaf today, private and public libraries, they contain hundreds thousands of books in various kinds of cultures, and tens thousands of manuscripts related to various Islamic sciences and their associations, amongst them the rare manuscripts for its writing antiquity, or they were written by the hands of their authors, or since they were read on the hearings of their authors, or they were written according to the copies of their authors, or because of their singleness, and their infrequency. And these libraries spread at the houses, Mosques, Husseiniyehs, associations, and the schools, and in the private buildings of them. And that of importance from the libraries in Najaf Ashraf are as follows:

 

 

1-Library of the Purified Haydariyeh Rawdheh

It is located at the nave of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), which was a store of the books of the Holy Alawiyeh tomb, its beginning refers to the days of ‘Adhud Ad-Dawleh Al-Buwaiyhi, who died in 372 A.H., and he was interested with the precious rare manuscripts collecting. And because of this bookcase burning, Sadr Ad-Deen bin Sharaf Ad-Deen, who is known by Al-‘Awi reinstituted it in760 A.H., seeking the support of the brilliant investigator Abi Talib Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-Hilli, who died in 771 A.H., and it was called by Al-‘Alawiyeh bookcase. It has been containing the precious books, and the majority of them are written by the handwriting of their authors, or their handwritings exist on them, the most important of them are as follows:

1-         Precious copies of the Holy Qur’an, are written by the most famous sign-writers’ hands, they were written in Kufi, Andalusi, and Yemani hand-writings are adorned by the gold, they return to various ages, and their number reaches to 400 copies, the date of some of them returns to 400 A.H., and amongst them copies are written on parchment by the Kufi inscription, which is ascribed to Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and was written at the end of it, it is completed in 40 A.H..

2-         Nahjil-Burdeh book, it is ascribed to Imam Ali (peace be upon him).

3-         Ash-Shiraziyeh Masa’il book, by Ash-Shaikh Abil-Hassan bin ‘Abdil-Ghaffar the Persian grammarian.

4-         Ad-Durdiyeh exposition book, by Ibn Khalawiyeh.

5-         Al-Mutanabbi divan exposition, by Ibn Al-‘Atiayqui, who died in 700 A.H..

6-         The second volume At-Tibiyan book, its date composition refers to 576 A.H.

7-         Al-Asrar Al-Khafiyeh book, by the Scholar Al-Hilli, it is written by the hand of the author in three volumes.

8-         Nihayatil-‘Iqudaam Fee ‘Ilmil-Kalam book, by Fakharid-Deen Ar-Raazi, its date refers to 700 A.H..

9-         Al-Multaquad book, by Az-Zamakhshari, was written in an ancient style.

10-     Taqureeb Al-Muquarrab Fee An-Nahow, by Ibn ‘Asfoor.

11-     At-Taqureeb book, by Ibn Hayaan, was written by the Hand writing of the author himself.

12-     Al-Mabahith book, by Ibn Siyna’, it was written in 718 A.H..

13-     The first volume of Mu’jamil-U’daba’ book, it was written by the hand-writing of the author.

 

 

From the Memory of History

This library authorized with the care of the kings, the princes, and the authorities  of Shi’a  Because of its attribution to the Holy ‘Alawi shrine, and containing every precious and priceless things, so it obtained a wide scientific celebrity through the middle of the fifth century of Hegira, when the students of science started to move to wards Najaf from various countries. We mentioned that this library was exposed to the burning; and that took place through the blaze which was inflamed in the Holy ‘Alawi shrine in 755 A.H., and amongst that which is burnt a copy of the Holy Qura’n in three volumes were written by the handwriting of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). And Sadr Ad-Deen Al-‘Awi already willed to buy stopped books for this library by the one third of his own heritage, and through five years this library reached its completeness, and it regained its worth after the rare book had been bought to it. The students of the religious sciences used to leave their precious books, and that they which composed of letters. And at the end of the thirteenth century A.H. the hands of the robbers extended to this great library, so it became exposed to the slackness, then nothing is known of this library save its name, while the number of these books are in it, is not exceeding the hundreds stored books in a bookcase, which is never be opened unless for eminent visitors. And of those who mentioned this bookcase is As-Sayyid Ali bin Tawoos through his At-Tara’if book, Ash-Shaikh Ali the grandson of Al-M’alim Fi Ad-Dur An-Nadheed book author, and Ash-Shtari through Tuhfatil-‘Alim.



2-Library of As-Sadr Al-‘Adham School

It is located at the building of As-Sadr School, which is located at the entrance of the great market, it is instituted by the way of Hajj Muhammad Hussein Khaan Al-Isfahani, who is known by As-Sadr Al-‘Adham, and it is called by his name; and that was happened through Fat-h Ali Shah Al-Quajari age in the first half of the thirteenth century A.H., it is considered as the first public library, is established in the modern Najaf city, and it became the most celebrated library in Najaf for a period of time, and As-Sadr Al-‘Adham established it for the seek of his religious School benefit, he already spent the immense money for the purpose of supply it by the scientific written sources, and those were printed. And in spite of their importance, and the great amount that was spent on them, the majority of its antique manuscripts, and rare books are lost, which their number was great till the first quarter of the fourth century A.H..



3- Ash-Shutariyeh Husseiniyeh Library

It was established by the way of Al-Hajj Ali Muhammad An-Najaf ‘Abadi, who died in 1332 A.H., it was containing less that ten thousand of books, and the majority of its manuscripts are written by the hand of its establisher An-Najaf ‘Abadi himself, from these books are as follows:

1-Talkhees Al-‘Aquaal Fee ‘Ilm Ar-Rijaal, by Al-Mirza Muhammad Al-Husseini, who died in 1026 A.H. it was written by the hand of the author himself.

2- Mutashabeh Al-Qur’an, by Ibn Shahr ‘Ashoub, it was written in 1079 A.H.

The transitory regime already began to tear down the buildings are located in Al-‘Imareh district completely so no visible sign remained of that library.



4-Kashif Al-Ghit’a Library

Ash-Shaikh Ali Kashif Al-Ghit’a (may God be please with him) established it, who died in 1350 A.H. as his private library, and his son Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hussein Kashfil-Ghit’a ( 1294-1373 A.H.) (may God be please with him) endowed it, then; he built a private section of it in his celebrated School, it contained about ten thousands books amongst them the great registrations of history, literature, linguistics, and the important manuscripts in it, and of its important manuscripts are as follows:

1-Salwatil-‘Arifeen Wa U’nsil-Mushtaqueen, by Muhammad bin Malik At-Tabari its date refers to 459 A.H..

2-Al-‘Anwaar An-Nabawiyeh Fee Sihah Al-‘Akhbaar Al-Mustafawiyeh, by Al-Hassan bin Muhammad As-Saghaani, its date of composition refers to 692 A.H.

3-Al-M’arifeh Fee U’sool Al-Hadeeth, by Al-Hakim bin Abdillah the author of Al-Mustadrik, its date of writing refers to 425 A.H.

4-Anwaar Al-Yaqueen Fee Imamat Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (peace be upon him), by Al-Mansoor Billah Al-Hassan bin Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Yahya one of the princes of Yeman, he completed its composition in 1108 A.H.

5-Al-‘Imaan a selected part from Al-Kafi book by Ash-Shaikh Al-Kulaini, its hand writing date refers to 708 A.H.

6-Al-Husoon Al-Manee’ah Fee Tabaquaat Rijaal Ash-Shi’a, by Ash-Shaikh Ali Kashif Al-Ghit’a the establisher of the library, and it was written by the way of his hand.

7-Sameer Al-Hadhir wa mat’a Al-Musafir, this book is of his own and he wrote it by the way of his hand, and he completed it in 1343 A.H.

8-Ad-Durratil-Bahiyeh War-Rawdhatil-Mudhiyeh Fee Tareekh Ar-Rawdhatil-Husseiniyeh, by As-Sayyid Hasson Al-Buraqui and he wrote it by his hand, and died in 1332 A.H.

9-Mukhtasar Maquatil At-Talibiyyen. It was composed and written by his hand.

10-Muntakhab Tarrekh Qom waman Sakan feeha mina ‘Alawiyyen, it was composed by him and written by his hand.

11-Ad-Durratil-Midhee’ah fee Taareekh Al-Hannaneh wath-Thawiyeh, by him, and it was written by his hand.

12-Kashfil-‘Astaar Fee ‘Awlaad Khadeejeh Min An-Nabi Al-Mukhtaar (S.), by him, and it was written by his hand, he completed it in 1325 A.H.

13-An-Nukhbeh Aj-Jaliyeh fee ‘Ahwaal Al-Wahabiyeh, by him, and it was written by his hand, he completed it in 1314A.H.

14-Rijaal Al-Ghadha’iri, it was written by the hand of the library establisher himself.

15-Riyadh Al-U’lam’a, by Al-Mirza Abdullah Afandi, some of its volumes are written by the hand of the library establisher.

16-Sharh Ad-Durdiyeh, by Ibn Khalawiyeh it was written by his hand.

17-Waquqtij-Jamal book, by Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufeed, it was written by the establisher’s hand.

18-Al-Faseeh, by Th’alib, it was written by the hand of the library establisher.

19- Al-‘Akhlaaqu, by As-Sayyid ‘Abdallah Shubbar, it was written by the hand of the author, he completed it in 1178 A.H.

20-Haqul-Yaqueen, by As-Sayyid Khalaf Al-Mush’asha’i the prince on Al-Huwaiyzeh, it was written through the age of the author.

21-An-Nihayeh Fee Ghareeb Al-Hadeeth, by Ibn Al-‘Atheer, it was composed through the author’s age, on which this permission was written by his hand.

22-Mukhtaar As-Sihah, by Ar-Razi.

23-Kifayatil-Mutahafidh Wanihayatil-Mutalafidh, by At-Tibrisi.

24-Al-Hukm Wal-Muheet Al-‘Adham, by Ibn Siydeh.

25-Al-Fa’iqu Fee Tafseer Al-Hadeeth book, by Az-Zamakhshari.

26-Al-‘Intikhab Aj-Jayyid min Tanbeehat As-Sayyid book, by Ad-Dimistani.

27-Al-Hada’iqul-Wardiyeh Fee Manaquib ‘A’immatiz-Zayidiyeh, by Imam Hameed Ad-Deen Al-Yamaani.

28-Rijaal Ibn Dawood, it was written in 1036 A.H.

29-Fihrist U’lam’a Al-Bahrain, by Ash-Shaikh Sulaimaan Al-Mahoozi.

30-Mi’raaj Al-Kamaal ‘Ila M’arifat ‘Ahwaal Arijaal book, by Al-Mahoozi too.

31-‘Asm’a Al-‘Adhdad book, by Ibn Qutaibeh, it was written in 1253 A.H.

32-‘Asm’a Al-‘Adhdad, by Ath’alibi.

33-T’aleequah ‘Ala Shi’r Imr’a Al-Quais, by As-Saiyyed Al-Murtadha.

34-Diywaan Al-Murtadha.

35-Diywaan ‘Afeef Ad-Dimashqui, it was written in 1101 A.H.

36-Diywaan Al-Hussein bin Al-Hajjaj, it is supplied with pictures.

37-Sharh Diywaan Al-Mutanabbi, by ibn Jinni.

38-Sharh Al-Mu’allaquat As-Sab’a, by Ibn Jinni too.

39-Al-Mughni ‘An Al-‘Aghaani book, by Shaikh Muhammad Hussein Kashif Al-ghit’a.

40-Al-Maqusoor Wal-Madood, by Ibn Duraiyd.

41-At’aleequeh ‘Ala Tabaquaatil-‘Umam book, by Ibn Abi Jaradeh, it was copied according to a copy its date refers to 650 A.H.

42-Hashiyat ‘Ala Matali’ Al-‘Anwaar book, it was written through the age of the author in 680 A.H.

43-Sharh Al-Matali’ book, by Qutb Ad-Deen Ash-Shirazi, it was written in 772 A.H.

44-‘Uyun Al-‘Athar by Ibn Sayyid An-Naas, it was written in 1031 A.H.

45-Tabaquaat Al-U’mam, by Al-Andalusi.

This library is located in the building of Kashif Al-Qut’a’s school, in Al-‘Imareh district.



5-Library of the Literary union association

It was established by the way of the literary union association in 1351 A.H., it contains four thousand books nearly, amongst them the eminent cultural encyclopedias like:

1-     The British encyclopedia.

2-     The twentieth century encyclopedia.

3-     Al-Bustanie’s encyclopedia.

4-     Ash-Shi’a authorities’ encyclopedia.

And this library is located at the association office in Aj-Jidaiydeh district.



6-Ath-Thari’ah Author's Library

‘Agha Buzurg At-Tihrani the author of the precious encyclopedia (Ath-Tharee’ah Ila Tasaaneef Ash-Shee’ah) established it in 1345 A.H., and he endowed it in 1375 A.H., and it contained about five hundred books amongst them the historical encyclopedias, and the rare manuscripts, of them are:

1-Ath-Thari’ah ‘Ila Tasaaneef Ash-Shi’a, it was written by the had of the library establisher, who is the author himself.

2-Tabaquaat ‘Alaam Ash-Shi’a, this book was written by his hand.

3-‘Ijazaat Al-Quroon Ath-Thalaatheh Al-‘Akheereh book, by his hand, the library establisher himself composed.

4-Majmoo’atil-Fawaa’id Al-Mutafarriqueh, it was written by him, and by his hand writing.

5-Mustadrak Ath-Thari’ah, it was written by him, and by his hand writing.

6-‘Adaab Al-Munadhareh book, by Al-‘Adhdi, and it was written by the library establisher handwriting.

7-‘Adaab Al-Munadhareh by Al-Kaashi, it was written by the establisher's hand writing.

8-Al-‘Alaam by Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufeed, it was written by the establisher of the library handwriting.

9-Aj-Jabr Wat-Tafweedh by Imam Al-Haadi (peace be upon him), it was written by the library establisher handwriting.

10-Risalat Abi Ghalib Az-Zrari, it was written by the library establisher handwriting.

11-Eighteen thesis concerned to various subjects, by As-Sayyid Al-Murtadha, it was written by the library establisher handwriting.

12-Jannatil-M’awa fiman R’aahu (may God hasten his emergency) Fil-Ghaiybatil-Kubra, by Al-Mirza An-Noori, who died in 1320 A.H., and it was written by the library establisher handwriting in 1302 A.H.

13-Khatimatil-Mustadrak, by Al-Mirza An-Noori, it was written by the author’s handwriting himself, he completed it in 1319 A.H.

14-Daaris-Salaam Fir-Ru’ya Wal-Manaam book, by Al-Mirza An-Noori, it was written by the author’s handwriting, he completed it in 1292 A.H.

15- The second As-Saheefa Al-‘Alawiyah book, by Al-Mirza An-Noori, it was written by the author’s handwriting himself in 1303 A.H.

16-Mizan As-Sam’a Fee Milaad Khatam Al-‘Anbiya’, by Al-Mirza An-Noori, it was written by the author’s handwriting, he completed it in 1281.

17-‘Adaab Al-Bahth Walmuta’llimeen, by Al-Mawla Muhammad Al-Qumshahi, it was written by the author’s handwriting.

18- At-Tabsireh Fee At-Tajweed, by Al-Qumshahi, it was written by the author’s hand writing himself, he completed it in 1252 A.H.

19-Al-Husn Wal-Qubh Al-‘Aquliyeen, by Al-Qumshahi, it was written by the author’s hand writing himself, he completed it in 1281 A.H.

20-‘Irshaadil-‘Ath-Haan, by Al-Hilli Scholar, it was written in 1105 A.H.

21-Al-‘Unmoothaj Fee An-Nahu, by Al-‘Ardabeeli, it was written in 1239 A.H.

22-At-Tathkira Fee Al-‘Usool Al-Khamseh, by As-Saahib bin ‘Abbad.

23-At-Tasreeh book by Al-‘Azhari, it was written in 1037.

24-Tahtheeb Al-‘Usool, it was written in 1044 A.H.

25-Jaami’a As-Sa’adaat book, by An-Naraqui, it was written in 1208 A.H.

26-Risaleh Fee Aj-Ja’a Bayina Al-Fatimiyatain, by Al-Waheed Al-Bahbahani, it was written through the author’s age.

27- Khilasat Al-‘Athkaar, by Al-Faidh Al-Kashani, it was written through the author’s age.

28- Ad-Duroos Ash-Sharaiyeh, by Ash-Shaheed Al-‘Awwal, it was written in 830 A.H.

29-Rijaal Ash-Shaikh Murtadha Al-‘Ansaari book.

30-Ar-Rawdhatil-Bahiyeh, by Ash-Shahhed Ath-Thaani, it was written on Tirmeh paper, and two other copies, one of them was written in 1247 A.H., and the other was written in 1271 A.H.

31-Shara’ia Al-‘Islaam by Al-Hilli the ssinvestigator, it was written in 1240 A.H.

32-‘Iquaab Al-‘Amaal book, by As-Suddoqu, it was written in 1267.

33-Al-Malaahim Wal-Fitan book, by Ibn Tawoos, it was written according to the author’s copy it is compared with it.

34-Al-Fusool An-Nasriyeh, by Naseer Ad-Deen At-Toosi.

35-Al-Quawl As-Sirah Fee Naqud As-Sihaah, by Shaikh Ash-Shari’ah Al-Asfahaani, it was written according to the author’s copy in 1341 A.H.

36-Kanzil-‘Irfaan Fee Fiquh Al-Qur’an, by Al-Miqudad As-Siyuri, it was written in 1248 A.H.

37-Musnad Muhammad bin Sulaiymaan Al-Maghribi.

38- Muhajid-D’awaat, by ibn Tawoos, it was written in 1035 A.H.

39-Al-Muquanna’, by As-Suddoqu, it was written in 1239 A.H.

40-An-Nukat Al-‘Itiquadiyeh, by Al-Mufeed, it was written in 1147 A.H.

and this library is located in the establisher’s house in Aj-Jidaiydeh district.



7-Library of Jurisprudence Collage

It was established by the way of Muntada An-Nashr association in 1356 A.H. by the name of Muntada An-Nashr association, and when the jurisprudence collage was established it was called by the name of the collage, and the number of books it contained through the latest years reached to over than twenty-five thousand books, amongst them the important manuscripts of U’sool and juristic, like:

1-     Mafaateeh Ash-Shrai’, by Al-Faidh Al-Kashani.

2-     Kifaayatil-Muqutasid, by As-Sabzawaari.

3-     A volume of two parts concerned to the Shi’a variety, by Al-Hilli scholar, who died in 726 A.H., it was written in 781 A.H., means through the author’s age.

It was located at the building of Muntada An-Nash general center, which surrounds the nave of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), then it became at the building of the jurisprudence collage, then it is exposed to the spoiling, after the expired regime closed the collage of jurisprudence.


 8-The Domestic Administration Library

The Iraqi Government established it, it contains more that seven hundred book, and it is located in Muslim bin ‘Aqueel street.



9-‘Al-Hunoosh Library

It is established by the hand of the Najafian Hajj Kadhum Hassoon ‘Al-Hunoosh in 1307 A.H., it contains more that three thousand books, five hundred of the them are written in languages other than the Arabic, it is located in Al-Buraqu district.



10- Imam ‘Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (peace be upon him) Library

Ash-Shaikh Abd Al-Hussein Al-‘Ameeni the author of the precious encyclopedia (Al-Ghadeer Fee Al-Kitab Was-Sunneh Wal-‘Adab), he established it in 1373 A.H., it is considered the greater from among the Islamic scientific libraries, as it contains books of different sciences concerned to the researchers’ action, and the computer system entered the bibliography service later, and it contains a wide hall for survey, it contains more than thirty thousand printed, and three thousand and six hundred manuscripts, and nearly five hundred photographs, and nearly thousand of newspapers and magazines.

And the gilded and precious Qur’ans are considered as the most important of the rare manuscripts in it; they are collected from various museums and palaces of the princes.

And of its rare manuscripts as follows:

1-A piece of the Holy Qur’an, was written by the handwriting of Imam Ali the Prince of believers (peace be upon him), which is the more ancient manuscript in it.

2-Hidayatil-U’mmeh book, by Al-Hurril-‘Amili, who died in 1104 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author himself.

3-Zeej Algh Bek book.

4-Nadhm Durar As-Simtan Fee Fadha’il Al-Mustapha (S.) Wal-Murtadha Wal-Batool Was-Sibtain (peace be upon them), by Al-Hafidh Jamaal Ad-Deen Az-Zrindi, who died in 750 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author himself.

5-Hadaa’iqu Al-Haqua’iqu Fee Sharh Nahjil-Balagheh book, by ‘Al’a Ad-Deen Muhammad bin Abi Turab gulistaneh Al-‘Isfahani, who died in 1100 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author himself.

6-Sharh U’sool Al-Kaafi, by Al-Mawla Khaleel bin Al-Ghaazi Al-Quazwini, who died in 1089 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author.

7- Sharh Al-Fusool An-Naseeriyeh book, by As-Sayyid Abdil-Wahaab Al-Husseini Al-‘Istar ‘Abadi, it was written by the hand of the author himself in 883 A.H.

8-Shajarat Mashaiykh Al-‘Ijazeh (the positions of getting permission), by Al-Mirza An-Noori, it was written by the hand of the author himself.

9-Zubdatil-Bayaan Fee Qusasil-Qur’an, by Muhammad bin Mahmood At-Tabasi, it was written by the hand of the author himself in 1083 A.H.

10-Al-Manaquib, by Muhammad bin At-Taiyb Ash-Shafi’y, who died in 483 A.H.

11-Rawdhatil-Firdaws book, by Ali bin Shahab Al-Hamadani, who died in786 A.H.

12-Al-Hukhtasar Min Kitab Al-Muwafaqueh, of Ibn As-Sammaan, composed by Jaarallah Az-Zamakhshari.

13-Al-‘Ishareh ‘Ila Seeratil-Mustapha (S.), by ‘Al’a Ad-Deen Al-Mughaliti bin Quleej, who died in 726 A.H.

14-Risaalt U’sool Al-‘Imaan book , by Muhammad Ad-Dihlawiy Al-Bukhaari.

15-Mafateehil-Ghaiyb, by Fakhrid-Deen Ar-Raazi, on which a collation was completed in 715 A.H.

16-Sihaah Al-Lugheh, by Aj-Jawhari, it was written in 713 A.H.

17-Tafseer Al-Kash-Shaaf, by Az-Zamakhshari, it was written in 736 A.H.

18-At-Tibyan Fee Tafseer Al-Qur’an, by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi, who died in 460 A.H., on which a collation was fulfilled in the nineteenth of Shawaal 500 A.H.

19-Tarjamat As-Saheefeh As-Sajjadiyeh, by the Scholar Al-Majlisi, who died in 1110 A.H., it was written by the hand of the translator.

From the masterpieces of pictures in it are as follows:

1-As-Siraat As-Sawiy Fee Manaquib ‘Al An-Nabi (S.), by Ash-Shaikh Al-Quadiri, it was written by the hand of the author.

2-Al-Kaamil Fee M’arifat Adh-Dhu’af’a Wal-Matrookeen Minar-Ruwaat, by Ibn ‘Udai Aj-Jirjaani, who died in 365 A.H.

3- Taareekh Dimashqu book, by Ibn ‘Asaakir Ad-Dimaqui, who died in 571 A.H.

4-Mir’aat Az-Zamaan book, by Asa-Sibt Ibn Aj-Jawzi, who died in 654 A.H.

5- Saharaf ‘Ashaab Al-Hadeeth, by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi, who died in 463 A.H.

6-Man Laho Al-‘Asma’ Al-Mubhameh, by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi.

7-Ar-Rihleh book, by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi.

8-Al’Imaan, by Al-Haafidh Ibn Abi ‘Umar Al-‘Adani, who died in 243 A.H.

9-Al-Mu’jamil-Kabeer book, by Al-Haafidh Sulaiyman bin ‘Ahmad At-Tabarani, who died in 360 A.H.

10-Al-Kuna Wal-‘Asmaa’ book, by Muslim bin Al-Hjjaj the author of As-Saheeh.

11-Ath-Thuquaat book by Al-Haafidh Abi Haatam Al-Basti, who died in 354 A.H.

12-Zaad Al-Maseer Fee ‘Ilm At-Tafseer, by Ibn Aj-Jawzi, who died in 579 A.H.

13-Noor Al-Haqueequeh Wa Noor Al-Hdeequeh, by Al-Hussein bin ‘Abd As-Samad Al-Harithi, who died in 984 A.H., it was written by the hand of its author.

And the library contains a little division, which contains rare vestigial masterpieces, perhaps they were the foundation of a great Islamic museum, the location of this library is in Al-Huwaiysh district.



11-‘Ayatullah Al-Burujurdi Library

It was established by the way of As-Sayyid Hussein Al-Burujurdi –the celebrated his eminence religious authority- in 1373 A.H., it included more about five thousand books, and hundreds manuscripts, and of its rare manuscripts are as follows:

1-‘Usool Al-Handaseh Wal-Hisaab book, by Euclid.

2-U’sool Al-Handaseh Wal-Hisaab book, by Naseer Ad-Deen At-Toosi.

3-Tuhfatil-Hatami Fee Al-U’stoolaat, by Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’i.

4-Risalatun Fee Aj-Jabr Wal-Muquabaleh book, by Naseer Ad-Deen At-Toosi.

5-Al-Quanoon book, by Ibn Sina.

6-Qublat Al-‘Alam book, by Muhammad Muhsin Al-Geelani.

7- Aristotle book about the form (Hai’ah).

8-Risaleh Fee ‘Ilm An-Nahu, by Naseer Ad-Deen At-Toosi.

9-Risaleh Fee ‘Ilm Al-‘Istirlaab, by Naseer Ad-Deen At-Toosi.

10-Aj-Jathwaat Wal-Mawaaqueet book, by Mirdamaad.

11-Tfseer Al-Qur’an Al-Kareem, by Sadr Ad-Deen Ash-Shirazi.

12-Hashiyeh ‘Ala Tafseer Al-Baiydhawi.

13-Hashiyeh ‘Ala Tafseer Al-Kash-Shaaf.

14-Tafseer Al-Kaafi Ash-Shaafi, by At-Tibrisi.

15-Al-Mabsoot Fee Fiquih Al-‘Imamiyeh, by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi.

16-Sharh Al-Wafiyeh, by Asayyid Muhsin Al’Araji.

17-Hashiyatil-Madaarik, by Ash-Shaikh yousif Al-Bahraani.

18-Al-Waseeleh, by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi.

19-As-Siraaj Al-Wahhaj, by Ash-Shaikh Ebraheem Al-Quatifiy.

20-As-Safi Fee Sharh Furoo’u Al-Kaafi book, by Al-Quzweeni.

21-Hashiyatil-‘Istibsaar book, by Ad-Damaad.

22-Sharh Man Layahdhuruhul-Faqueeh book, by Al-Majlisi.

23-Al-Khara’ij Wal-Jara’ih book, by Ar-Rawandi.

24-Hashiyatun ‘Alal-Quawaaneen book, by Ash-Shaikh Murtadha Al-‘Ansaari.

25-Sharh Al-Waafiyeh, by As-Sayyid Bahr Al-‘Uloom.

26-I’Ddatil-U’sool book, by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi.

27- Muthallathaat Qutrub book.

28-Sirril-‘Adaab, by Ath-Tha’alibi.

29-Divan book of Ash-Shareef Ar-Radhi.

30-Tanzeehil-‘Anbiya’, by As-Sayyid Al-Murtadha.

31-Tareekh Mulook Al-‘Ajam book, by Aj-Jweeni.

32-Ash-Shafa book by Ibn Seena.

33-Al-‘Isharaat book, by Ibn Seena.

34-‘Athologiya by Plato.

35-Al-Mantiqu, by Ibn Siyna.

This library is located at the School of his eminence Al-Burujurdi, near the round of the Holy Haydari nave.



12-Ayatullah His Eminence Al-Hakeem’ Library

it was established by the way of As-Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakeem – the celebrated religious authority- in 1377 A.H., it contained sixteen thousand books, and three thousand manuscripts, and of its rare manuscripts are as follows:

1-Durar Al-Al-‘Akaam Fee Sharh Ghurar Al-’Akaam book, by Al-Mawla Khisrow Ar-Roomi Al-Hanafi, who died in 885 A.H., it was written by the author.

2-Ar-Risalatil-Muhammadiyeh book, by Ash-Shaikh Yousif Al-Bahraani, who died in 1181 A.H., it was written by the author’s hand.

3- Manb’a Al-Hayaat book, by As-Sayyid Ni’matullah bin Abd Allah, who died in 1112 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author in 1100 A.H.

4-Muntahal-Matlab book, by the Scholar Al-Hilli, it was written by the hand writing of the author.

5- Al-‘Asraar Al-Khafiyyeh book, by the Scholar Al-Hilli, it was written by the hand of the author.

6-Dawhatil-‘Anwaar book, by As-Sayyid Jawaad Siyah Poosh, who died in 1247 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author in 1235 A.H.

7-Divan Ash-Shaikh Al-Hur, who died in 1104 A.H., it was written by the hand of the author.

8-Mukhtalaf Ash-Shi’ah Fee ‘Ahkaam Ash-Shari’ah, by the Scholar Al-Hilli, it was written according to the author’s copy.

9-Ghayatil-Wusool book, by the Scholar Al-Hilli, it was written through the age of the author, in 697 A.H.

10-Divan Ibn M’asoom, it read on the poet’s hearing.

11-Divan Al-‘Abdi, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and it was written by the hand of Ash-Shaikh himself.

12-Divan Al-Khatti, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and it was written by the hand of Ash-Saikh himself.

13-Diva Al-Haddad, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and it was written by the hand of Ash-Shaikh himself.

14-Divan Al-Hirthi, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and it was written by the hand of Ash-Shaikh himself.

15-Divan An-Nashi’ As-Sagheer, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and by his handwriting.

16- Divan An-Najaf, it was collected by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad As-Smawi, and by his handwriting.

17-At-Tanqueeh Ar-Rabi’ Limukhtasar Ash-Sharai’, by Al-Miqudad As-Siyuri, who died in 968 A.H.

18-Ad-Duroos Ash-Shar’iyeh, by Ash-Shaheed in 967 A,H.

19-Sharaiy’a Al-Islam by Al-Muhaquiqu Al-Hilli in 755 A.H.

20-Kanzil-Haquiqu book, by Hafidh Ad-Deen An-Nasfi, who died in 710 A.H.

21-Al-Mabsoot Fi Fiquhil-Imamiyeh book, by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi, it was written in 586 A.H., which is the oldest  manuscript existed in this library.

22-Mukhtasaril-Khilaaf book, by At-Tibrisi, it was written in 699 A.H.

23- Niyhayatil-‘Ahkaam book, by Al-Hilli Scholar, it was written in 859 A.H.

24-At-Tara’if book, by As-Sayyid Ibn Tawoos, it was written in 984 A.H.

25- Nahjil-Haqu Wakashfis-Sidqu book, by Al-Hilli Scholar, it was written in 734 A.H.

26-Man La Yadhuroohul-Faqueeh book, by As-Sidooqu, it was written in 1092 A.H.

27-Nahjil-Balagheh book, it was written in 677 A.H.

28-Sharh Miftahil-‘Uloom book, by Aj-Jurjaani Ash-Shareef, who died in 816 A.H., it was written in 861 A.H.

29-Jamaalil-‘Usboo’a book by As-Sayyid Ibn Tawoos, it was written in 953 A.H.

whereas, the library contained eminence photographed copies from that:

Riyadh Al-‘Ulam’a book, by Ash-Shaikh Abdullah ‘Afandi, and Al-Waafi Bil-Wafayaat book, by As-Safdi and other copies.

Rather, the library is distinguished with the numerous commentaries, and there is a particular division of publications are published in Najaf ‘Ashraf, and it contained many of the Holy Qur’an copies are written in beautiful writings.

And the library has many branches reaches to sixty-five spread through-out various towns of Iraq, and three branches abroad Iraq in the Islamic countries, and it participated through instituting compartments in some of public libraries abroad Iraq, like the compartment of the juristic encyclopedia committee in Al-‘Azhar Holy mosque in Cairo, and it presented many books to several public libraries in Iraq and abroad Iraq, they reached to eighteen thousand books in 1385 A.H.

This library is located beside Al-Hindi mosque near to the Holy nave at the beginning of Ar-Rasool street.

 

13- The Najaf university of anthology library

It is established by the school of An-Najaf university in 1382 A.H., and it included about seven thousand books, and nearly two hundred manuscripts, and of its rare manuscripts are as follows:

1-Sharh Ash-Shamsiyeh book, it has been written in 877 A.H.

2-Ar-Rawdheh Al-Bahiyeh, by the Second martyr, by the hand writing of the writer himself.

And the library is located in a special annex in the school of An-Najaf religious university in As-S’ad district.

 

14- Al-‘Alamain At-Toosi and Bahril-‘Uloom Library

It is established by the way of As-Sayyid Hussein Bahril-‘Uloom in 1382 A.H., it contained more than two thousand books, and it used to publish Talkhees Ash-Shafi book by Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi, and Rijaal Bahril-‘Uloom book, and it used to deliver the Islamic book to different cultural institutions allover the world, and this library is located in graveyard of As-Sayyid Bahil-‘Uloom in At-Toosi mosque.

15- Al-Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) Library

It is established by the two scholars the authorities the two brothers Ash-Shaikh Hadi and Ash-Shaikh Baquir ‘Al Shaikh Shareef Al-Qurashi, they used to make their personal library as a seed of it. Ash-Shaikh Hadi died in 1995 A.D.

And great particular libraries are joined to it from these Al-Hajj Rashaad ‘Ajeeneh’s library, which he added to this library, and Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ridha Faraj Allah’s library which Al-Hajj Kaamil Al-‘Asam bought and presented to it, and other special library of law from the heritage of Sayyid ‘Adnan Zween is presented to it, this; save that which his eminence the authority Al-Quarashi (may God prolong his age) presented persistently, even it contained through this period about thirty-seven printed books, and about five hundred manuscripts. And from it’s manuscripts are as follows:

1-Jam’il Jawaam’i Fil-‘Usool book, by Al-‘Iraqi, its date returns to 800 A.H.

2-Sharh Nahjil-Mustarshdeen book, by Al-‘Ameedi.

3-Rabee’il-‘Abrar book, by Az-Zamakhshari.

4-Divan Abd Al-Muhsin As-Suwari, which is a precious copy that is taken from the original divan of As-Suwari.

5-Sharh Nahjil-Balagheh book, by Ar-Rawandi.

6-Minhaaj Al-Wousool Fee Tafseer ‘Ayat Al-‘Usool book, its date returns to 1103 A.H. by Al-Mirza ‘Abil-Hassan Ash-Shirazi the physician.

7-A doctrinal book (concerned to the services), and second volume of Makasib book (its author's name isn’t mentioned), its composition date returns to 1044 A.H.

8- Al-‘Arba’een book, by Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’i, its composition date returns to 995 A.H.

And other than these precious manuscripts and rare books we mentioned above have been contained in this library….

This library is located at the end of Ar-Rasool street nearly, at the right side of whoever comes from the Alawi Holy Shrine side, near the mountain is located at the end of the border at the southern side.

 

 

The Schools and the places of study

The schools in Najaf are places of the students residence, like students’ houses, then we present a statistic image concerned to An-Najaf Al-Ashraf schools according to their establishment date:

1-The school of the Holy Haydari nave, the high floor, which contains 44 rooms are instituted according to the latest instruction of the Holy nave.

2-As-Sadr school, it is established by the way of Muhammad Hussein Khan Al-Esfahaani in 1140 A.H., which contains 30 room, and as an additional extension contained 14 rooms, it is located in the great market (As-Sooqu Al-Kabeer).

3-Kaashif Al-Ghit’a school, which is known by (Al-Mu’tamid school), and it was established by Mu’tamid Ad-Dawleh ‘Abbas Quli Khan in about 1250 A.H., it contained 20 rooms, that Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hussein Kashif Al-Ghit’a took upon himself its reparation, who established an extension for his celebrated library, so the school is attributed to him, it is located in Al-‘Imareh district.

4-Al-Mehdiyeh school, it is established by Ash-Shaikh Mehdi Kashif Al-Ghit’a in 1291 A.H., it contains 22 rooms, and it is located beside Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi mosque.

5-Al-Quwwam school, it is established by Fat-h Ali khan Ash-Shirazi about 1300 A.H., it contains 26 rooms, and it is located beside Al-Mehdiyeh school.

6- As-Saliymyeh school, it is established by Al-Miqudad As-Soori (the author of Kanzil-‘Irfaan book) in 828 A.H., it  is known by his name, and it is repaired by Saleem khan Ash-Shirazi about the year 1205 A.H., it contains 12 rooms, and it is located in Al-Mishraqu market.

7- Al-‘Irawani school, it is established by Al-Hajj Mehdi Al-‘Irawani in 1305 A.H., it contains 19 rooms, it is located in Al-Huwaish district.

8-Al-Khalili great school, it established by Al-Mirza Hussein Al-Khalili in 1316 A.H., it contains 46 rooms, it is located in Al-‘Imareh district, it is established in a square figure, it contained two floors, all its walls are covered by variegated Quashani in such way of utmost beauty and invention. Then the absolutist Saddam Hussein tore it down in addition to what he tore down of the schools, mosques, and Husseiniyas, they were between the Holy nave and the grave of the honest servant (Safi As-Safa), so he divided its ground among of tourist projects.

9- Ash-Shirbiyani school, it was established by the way of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ash-Shirbiyani in 1320 A.H., it contains 40 rooms, and it is located in Al-Huwaish district.

10- The great Al-'Akhundi school, it is established by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Kadhum Al-Khurasani in 1321 A.H., it contains 40 rooms, and it is located in Al-Huwaish district.

11- The little Al-Khalili school, it is established by the way of Al-Mirza Hussein Al-Khalili in 1322 A.H., it contains 18 rooms, it is located in Al-'Imarah district, then it was called by (Al-'Ahmadiyah Aj-Jaza'iri school), it is torn down by the way of the oppressor Saddam Hussein in the same way that the great Al-Khalili school is torn down.

12- Al-Quzwini school, it is established by the way of Al-Hajj Muhammad 'Agha 'Ameen Al-Quzwini in 1324 A.H., it contains 30 rooms, and it is located in a place is known by At-Tammah.

13- Al-Bdkubi school, it is established by Al-Hajj Ali Al-Badkubi in 1325 A.H., it contains 30 rooms, and it is located in Imam Zain Al'Abideen (peace be upon him) street.

14-Al-Hindi school, it is established by the way of Nasir Ali Khan Al-Lahoori in 1328 A.H., it contains 20 rooms, and it is located in Al-'Imarah district.

15- Al-Wusta Al-'Akhund school, it is established by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Kadhum Al-Khurasani in 1326 A.H., it contains 12 rooms, it is located in Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) street.

16- The little Al-'Akhund school, it is established by Ash-Shaikh Kadhum Al-Khurasani in 1328 A.H., it contains 12 rooms, it is located in Al-Buraqu district.

17- Al-Bukhura'i school, it is established by the way of Muhammad Yousif Al-Bukhara'i in 1329 A.H., it contains 16 rooms, it is located neighboring the great Al-'Akhund school.

18-As-Sayid Muhammad Kadhum Al-Yazdi school, it is established in 1329 A.H., it contains 80 rooms, it is located in Al-Huwaish district, in one of the alleys which leads to Ar-Rasool (S.) street.

19- Al-Biltistaniyah Al-Bakistaniyah school, it is established in 1370 A.H.

20- Al-Kubra Al-Burujurdi school, it was established by the way of As-Sayyid Hussein Al-Burujurdi in 1373 A.H., it contains 64 rooms, it is located near the circle of the Nave.

21- Al-Kubra Ash-Shirazi school, it is established by the way of As-Saiyyd Abd Allah Ash-Shirazi in 1373 A.H., it contains 22 rooms, it is located in Aj-Jidaydah district.

22- As-Sughra Ash-Shirazi school, it is established by the way of Abd Allah Ash-Shirazi in 1377 A.H., it contains 8 rooms, it is located in Aj-Jidaydah district.

23- Ar-Rahbawi school, it is established by Al-Hajj 'Abbas Al-Hajj Muhsin Naji in 1378 A.H., it contains 18 rooms, and it is located in Al-Madeenah street.

24- As-Sughra Al-Burujurdi school, it is established by As-Sayyid Hussein Al-Burujurdi in 1378 A.H., it contains 12 rooms. It is located in Al-I'marah market.

25- Aj-Jawhachi school, it is established by Al-Hajj Muhammad Salih Aj-Jawharchi in 1383 A.H., it contains 54 rooms, and it contains a wide mosque in its ground floor, it is located in Al-Madeenah street.

26- Al'Amiliyah school, it is established by the efforts of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taquiy Al-Faqueeh, it contains 40 rooms, it is located in Muslim bin 'Aqueel's street.

27- Ghadeeriyaan school, it contains a little house for the students residence accompanied with their families, while we didn't know about the date of its establishment, it is located in Al-'Imarah district.

28-Al-Baghdadi school, it is established by Al-Hajj 'Abdil-'Azeez Al-Baghdadi in 1383 A.H., it contains 99 rooms, it is located in Imam Hussein's (peace be upon him) square.

29-Ash-Shubbariyeh school, which then was called by (Al-Imam As-Sadiqu "peace be upon him" school), it is established by As-Sayyid Ali Shubbar Al-Husseini in 1384 A.H., it is located in Al-Buraqu district.

30-As-Sughra Al-Yazdiy school, it is established by As-Sayyid 'Asad Al-Yazdi in 1385 A.H., it contains 40 rooms, it is located in Al-'Imarah district, and it is ruined in such manner that Al-Kubra Al-Khalili school was ruined by the way of the oppressor Saddam Hussein.

31-Al-Bahbhani As-Saiyyd Hashim school, he established it in 1385 A.H.

32-Al'Uzri school, it is established by the way of the late Al-Hajj 'Abdil-'Ameer Al-'Uzri in 1385 A.H.

33- Imam Ameeril-Mu'mineen (peace be upon him) school, it is established by the way of Al-Hajj Abd Abu Tabrah, in 1388 A.H.

34-Daaril-Hiqumah school, it is established by the way of As-Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakeem in 1390 A.H., it is blew up on the role of the oppressor Saddam Hussein at the following of Sh'abaan month upheaval.

35- Darril-'Ilm school, it is established by the way of As-Sayyid Abul-Quasim Al-Khoo'i, and it was located in circle of the sacred nave, face to face to the door of the nave, which is called by Al-'Imarah door, so; the oppressor Saddam ruined it in such way of Al-Khalili Al-Kubra school was ruined.

36- Al-Mahdiyah school, it is established by the way of Al-Hajj Mahdi Mirza, then; it is called by Jami'at As-Sadr, it is located in Abi Sukhair street face to face to the municipality office.

37- Al-Pakistaniyeen school, it is located in Abi Sukhair street faced to the municipality office.

38- Sh-Shaikh Muhammad Ali Al-Mudarris Al-'Afghani school.

39-As-Sayyid 'Awadh Al-'Afghani school.

40- Jami'at An-Najaf Ad-Deenyah school, it is established by the way of Al-Hajj Muhammad Taquiy I'tifaqu by the effort of the knower As-Sayyid Muhammad Kalantar over an area of five thousand square meter in As-S'ad strict at a main road which joins between Najaf and Kufa, it is established in 1370 A.H., and it's doors are opened in 1382 A.H., which is of greater schools in Najaf Ashraf absolutely, it contains 208 rooms, the first floor of it contains 62 rooms, the second floor contains 54 rooms, and the third floor contains 92 rooms, on the two sides of its gate at the right side of it there is a library, which is contains two floors, on an area of 225 square meter, and at the left side of the gate there is a mosque is located on an area of the same area of right side, and beside every one of these buildings there is a room, one of them is specialized for the dean of the school As-Sayyid Al-Kalantar (may Allah honor him) at the beginning of opening it in 1421 A.H., and the other one is a cemetery for him and for the establisher, while this form established in bow shape, which is located at the middle of the university entrance.

 

 

Places of Study

Firstly: The schools: Either in a court of teaching, or at rooms in case the number of students was limited.

Secondly: The Sacred nave: At the rooms, and the vaults in the ground floor, their number is 44 rooms, especially the cemetery of As-Sayyid Al-Yazdi, Al-Haboobi, and Shaik Ash-Shariy'ah, and other than them.

Thirdly: The Mosques: The most sought of mosques by the way of students, they are as follows:

Al-Hindi Mosque, Ash-Shaikh Al-'Ansaari Mosque, At-Toosi Mosque, Al-Khadhr'a Mosque, As-Sabzawari Mosque, or any other Mosque or Husseiniyah on which the teacher and the students agreed.

Fourthly: The Houses: The house of the teacher or the house of the student.


 

[1] Please refer to Lisan Al-‘Arab, vol.9 An-Naf printing-house, p. No. 323.

[2] Please refer to Taajil-‘Aroos book, vol.10, P.648.

[3] Please refer to Mu’jamil-Buldaan book, vol.4, p.196.

[4] Al-Badri researcher mentioned about the Assyrian dictionary, which Chicago university issued: (Kado) is the name of the ancient Euphrates, and it came through a narrative about Al-Mufadhal, about Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him), who said: it is the Euphrates of Al-Kufeh. And it is carried about the scholar Al-Majlisi, it seemed to him that it is twisted, and that the true is (near Al-Kufeh)...and it is carried that it appeared that: (Araraat) the term is mentioned through the Hebrew Torah, and the term (Qurdo) is mentioned through the Aramanic and the Assyrian. That the Ark of Noah resided at their mountains, rather, they are two names of Babel. From that which we received approaches to the narrative validity -in spite of the distortion awareness through the ancient Old Testament.

[5] Please refer to the Holy Qur’n, HUD Chapter, verse no.43.

[6] Please refer to Farhatil-Zahr’a.

[7] An-Najaf sea as you see, was still historically, rather, we looked at its view before it has been dried, when it became shallow, then Doctor Sheikh Abdil-Hadi Al-Fadhli mentioned that: the sea of Najaf was truly a waterway of the sailboats, while we haven’t an order about it that we satisfy it, save that about which the ÈÑÊÛÇáí (Takseera) told us, although it was late historically. Takseera, who arrived to Najaf in the 18th of September the 23rd of Rabieuth-Thani 1013 A.H. said: An-Najaf town was truly dominating from its high location over An-Najaf sea...he added: no a fixed form it has, rather; it extends in its length even it perimeter reaches to thirty-five and forty leagues, and there is a shoal passage in the middle of it, that the animals can pass it especially through the time through which the water of the sea becomes little. And he added: this lake was truly with great salinity, therefore; the salt was derived from it, and it was sold in Baghdad and the areas are neighboring it, and the fish plentiful in its various kinds, so; the people used to call it (Ar-Raheema). Then, Takseera sees that: the sea of Najaf truly derived it water from the Euphrates, therefore; the water quantities increase is viewed through the flood times. And the last verse of Al-Mawsili supports this meaning, thus; the orchards are situated around the river is coming from Abi Sukhair, which becomes full of water through the days of Euphrates flood.

[8] Please refer to Mu’jamil-Buldaan, vol.5, p.271.

[9] At a distance of two km.

[10] A column was still situated, whereas; it isn’t existed today.

[11]It is meant by that, the dominating plateau over the pan of An-Najaf Sea, and the Grave of the Imam has a distance of one km from it.

[12] The white Thaquawaat is: four knolls seem to white under the ray of the sun, and some times they seem to be red color, and it seems that this description is at the beginning of the sunrise and at the sunset time. And their positions are known around the Grave to this time.

[13] This was mentioned through the narratives of the Imams from Ahlil-Bayit starting from Imam Ali (peace be upon him), who pointed the position of the Grave.

[14] Therefore, dubiosity of some people related to the Holy Grave position that Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi carried about some of them, it was not because of insistence, or it was because of the grave hiding about some of the foes and the unbelievers – an ignorant dubiosity against a scholar who is in certainty, rather; the outlying stranger is worthless in front of the close friend.

Firstly: since that as Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed commented that: The sons of the man and his family are more aware about his grave location than the others, then the prominent people of Ali’s Shi’a, rather, you are aware about their agreement on this position of his Grave practically an evidence of saying, and representation.

Secondly: since that, the grave of Al-Mugheereh bin Sh’beh is at the cemeteries of Thaqueef in (Ath-Thwiyeh) according to what the historians established of these facts, so, they are at a distance of more that 12 km from the Holy Grave, and like this the grave of Ziyad bin Abeeh (may God curse him). And Ibn Ajawzi already mentioned that: Three hundred of the Companions are buried at the Back of Al-Kufeh, none of them became known save the grave of Ali bin Abi Talib to which his son As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) guided the people.

Thirdly: The Pious, the Scholar, the researcher Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hiriz Ad-Deen mentioned through Maraquid Al-Ma’rif book vol.2, P.323-324 about the trustworthy who is contemporary with him Dawood Al-Hajjar, that he used to prospect for the stones in the back of Al-Kufeh at Ath-(Thawiyeh) region near the old common way between Najaf and Kufeh on a distance of hundred steps from the grave of the magnificent Scholar Kumail bin Ziyad, so he came across a position on the earth in which was a hidden stone, and a big stone on which was written scripture in kufi script, so he eradicated it and kept it up, and he informed the pious Scholar the Mulleh Ash-Shaikh Ali Al-Khalili An-Najafi who died in the year 1297 A.H. about it, and when he read its scripture, he commanded him: please carry me to its location, he said: then I carried him on my animal and the stone was in front him, till we arrived to its location, then Ash-Sheikh put it at its position and flatten the soil on it by his hand, and said: I command you not to reveal the soil here, since it is a cemetery of the authorities of Muslims in Kufeh, and this stone is of the grave of Al-Mugheereh bin Shu’beh according to the script on the stone of it.

[15] Please refer to Ad-Dala’il Al-Burahaniyeh Fee Tasheehil-Hadhreh Al-Hgarwiyeh by the Scholar Al-Hilli, vol.2, P.837- 852, is printed with Al-Gharaat book by Athquafi.

[16] Please refer to Al-Kuna Wal-Alquab, vol.1, P.256.

[17] It was the first of all the schools, and greater than them.

[18] Please refer to Rihalt Ibn Battoteh (Ibn Battoteh Tripe).