Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) birth.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) wedding with Fatima (peace be upon her)

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) wound.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) martyrdom..

The Tale about Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Holy Tomb.

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Grave is a Safe and Sacred Place.

Holiness of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) personality.

The Fraternizing between Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the Prophet (S.)

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Staying in the Prophet's Bed.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and Ad-Daar narrative.

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) nominating on the day of Ghadeer Khom..

Those who protested against Imam Ali (peace be upon him) appointment

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) argument against Abi Bakr concerned to Fadak.

Disputation of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) concerned to Al-Ghdeer Event

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) priority concerned to the Prophet's Succession.

The Way which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) followed concerned to his right demand 

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Ring Almsgiving.

A Jewish man embraced Islam by the hand of Imam Ali (peace be upon him)

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Bravery.

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) bravery in Badr combat

Preferring Imam Ali (peace be upon him) upon the people save the others.

The first evidence:

The verse of Ordeal :

The second evidence:

The loyalty to wards Him (peace be upon him):

The third evidence:

The roasted bird narrative:

The Fourth Evidence: His (peace be upon him) authority on the Day of Judgment:

The Fifth Evidence:

The tales are transmitted by the way of Shi'a related to their priority:

The Sixth Evidence:

The tales by the way of the Prophetic traditions about their priority concerning:

The Seventh Evidence: His (peace be upon him) Sacrifice in behalf of Islam:

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) particularities.

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) sincerity.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Compelling on pledging allegiance to Abi Bakr

Ali's (peace be upon him) lover is the lover of the Sublime Allah, and the lover of His Messenger (S.)

Qualifications of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) concerned to taking upon the responsibility of Caliphate 

Firstly: His awareness with judicature:

Secondly: the Bravery:

Thirdly: The self-abnegation:

Fourthly: The Equity:

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Equitability.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) agreed on taking upon the Reign (Caliphate)

What Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his family suffered from because of Mu'awiyah 

Firstly: The preachers' employment:

Secondly: The educational institutions employment:

Thirdly: Creating the deceivable tales:

The First Group:

The Second Group:

The Third Group:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) abusing:

Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) virtues concealing:

Abstaining from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) mentioning:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) policy related to his employees and rulers.

Looking about the rulers:

The Opportunists elimination:

The Greedy Ones Elimination:

The Frankness and Flatness:

Advantages of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) on the tongue of Ibn 'Abbas.

As-Sunneh inhabitants' view concerned to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) succession through their books 

First Tradition:

Second Tradition:

The Third Tradition:

The Fourth Tradition:

The Fifth Tradition:

The Sixth Tradition:

Manners of brotherhood according to Imam Ali’s (A.S.) view..

First sermon:

Second sermon:

Third sermon:

Fourth sermon:

Fifth sermon:

Sixth sermon:

Seventh sermon:

Eighth sermon:

Ninth sermon:

Tenth sermon:

Eleventh sermon:

Twelfth sermon:

Thirteenth sermon:

Fourteenth sermon:

Fifteenth sermon:

Sixteenth sermon:

Seventeenth sermon:

Eighteenth sermon:

Philosophy of Bidding by good according to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) opinion.

First of them:

Second of them:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the social rights.

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) point of view concerned to the Human rights.

The First Statement:

The Second Statement:

The Third Statement:

The Fourth Statement:

Imam Ali’s view concerned to the human history.

Firstly: the Holy Qur’an:

Secondly: The particular education:

Thirdly: The Prophetic way:

Fourthly: the perusal:

Fifthly: The ancient monuments:

Selections of Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) sermons and instructions.

A sample of Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) sermons are emptied from (Alif) an Arabic letter

What is composed of poems in the right of Imam Ali (peace be upon him?)

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) birth

Ali (peace be upon him) was borne by a rare style on Friday, the thirteenth of the blessed Rajab month, before the prophetic mission by twelve years.

It was mentioned in Kashfil-Ghummah book about his birth accident, as follows:

Yazeed bin Qu’anub sad: When I was sitting accompanied with Al’Abbas bin ‘Abdil-Muttalib (may Allah be satisfied with him)…near the Sacred House of Allah (the Sublime), an accidentally Fatima the daughter of ‘Asad the mother of the prince of believers (peace be upon him) came while she was pregnant nine months, then; she suffered labor, thus; she recited supplication as follows: O God, I believed with you, and with whom You sent of Messengers and Books, and I truly believe with the saying of my grand father Al-Khaleel Abraham, who built the ancient House; then; I ask you by the right of who built this House, and the right of this embryo who is inside my abdomen, unless; you eased my delivery on me, and suddenly; I observed at the wall of the Sacred House, which be cracked from out ward, and Fatima the daughter of ‘Asad entered into it, and she withdrew from our sights, so; it returned back to its first way, consequently; we already managed to open the lock of the Door, but in vain, so; we knew it is a Divine event, then, she came out on the fourth day, while was carrying the Prince of believers Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) on her hands.

Whereas; the scholars of Muslims and their historians mentioned the accident like: the knower Sibt bin Aj-Jawzi Al-Hanafi mentioned it through his book Tathkiratil-Khawas, Ash-Shaikh At-Toosi through his Amali book, Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufeed through his Irshad book, As-Asyid Ibn Tawoos through his At-Tara’if book, Al-Mas’udi through his two Ithbat Al-Wasiyah and Morooj Ath-Thahab books, and others than them many of transmitters.

And that which is worthier to be mentioned on this occasion is the dignity and holiness which Ali (peace be upon him) acquisitioned by the way of his birth accident inside K’aba, that no one could obtain along with the history of humanity absolutely, in this concern; Ali (peace be upon him) was the first infant, who was born inside of Holy Ka’ba, while no one was born inside it save him, which considerably was a glorification, and honor  towards him from Allah (the Sublime).

 

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) wedding with Fatima (peace be upon her)

As-Sayid Al-'Ameen mentioned through his book Al-Majalis As-Saniyah as outline:

Ali (peace be upon him) came on the Messenger of God (S.), when he was at U'mm Salamah's home, he saluted him, and sat nearby him; so, the prophet (S.) asked him: Would you come for a purpose? Ali (peace be upon him) replayed him: Yes, I came to you forsaking your daughter's hand, would you please marry her off? U'mmu Salamah added: I viewed at the Prophet's (S.) face immediately, while it beamed with joy and happiness, then he smiled in Ali's (peace be upon him) face, thus; the Prophet (S.) came on Fatima (peace be upon her), and addressed her: Ali (peace be upon him) truly came to forsaking your hand, and I supplicated my Lord cause you married with the best man of his beings, what would you see?

She kept silent, so; the Messenger of God (S.) emerged, while he was calling: (Allah is greater; her keeping silence is an OK).

The Messenger of God (S.) commanded A'nas bin Malik in order to gather the companions of the prophet (S.), for the purpose of Fatima's wedding with Ali (peace be upon them) announcement, when they are gathered, the Messenger of God (S.) told them about the event as follows:

(Allah the Sublime commanded me by wedding Fatima the daughter of Khadeeja with Ali bin Abi Talib), then; the prophet (S.) told Ali (peace be upon him) as follows: (Allah the Sublime commanded me by Fatima wedding on a dower of four hundred weights of silver), and that took place on the first day of Thil-Hijj month, the second year of A.H.

This prophetic position, which submitted to the Will of Divine, arouse an important inquiry in front of us, which is as follows:

Why it is disallowed to Fatima to choose her wedding by herself? And; why it is disallowed to the Messenger of God (S.), who is her father and her prophet to choose her wedding himself- whereas; the prophet is worthier by the believers save themselves- unless after the sentence brought down from the Heaven in this concern? The answer is as follows: unavoidable that a mystery is available, and a Divine wisdom related to this wedding, which hinges on this humanitarian relationship, the relationship between Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of God (S.) with his cousin and his brother Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him), the Messenger of God (S.) used to call him myself, who; he was brought up at the home of the Messenger of God (S.), and he lived together with him at that home, and he grew up under the shadow of afflatus, and he is educated at the school of prophethood, even it became available for him (peace be upon him) to describe this relation as follows:

(I used to follow him like a young camel following in the footprints of its mother…every day he would show me in the form of a banner some of his high traits and commanded me to follow it. Every year he used to go in seclusion to the hill of Hira', where I saw him but no one else saw him. In those days Islam did not exist in any house except that of the Prophet of Allah –peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his descendants- and Khadeejeh, while I was the third after these two. I used to see and watch the effulgence of Divine revelation and message, and breathed the scent of Prophethood). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.83.

In this concern, Allah willed by the issue of the Messenger of God (S.) to continue by the way of Ali and Fatima, and from them Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them), the purified issue, Imams and leaders of this nation. Because of this concern and the Divine serious mystery, the wedding of Fatima happened according to a command of Divine, while; the messenger of God (S.) didn't antecede the Divine in this concerning, and he didn't behave unless when the commandment of Divine is brought down, just as he (S.) himself expressed about it.

 

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) wound

 

At the following of arbitration which took place in Siffeen battle; a group of people rebelled against the prince of believers Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and this group are called by rebellions, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) donated them many opportunities for the purpose of returning to their consciousness, but they continued in their enticement, and managed to originate an armed force and declared the killing of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and of his armies, then they became ready to fight against the armies of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), so; Imam Ali fought against them, and killed them in An-Nahrawaan battle.

A group of the enemies – who support the corrupted ideas of the rebels- already held an assembly in the Sacred Macca, and they discussed about their destiny which led them to the most noxious results, thus; they emerged with decisions, the most serious of them was killing the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), and this function discharge is entrusted to the evildoer the criminal Abdir-Rahman bin Muljim Al-Muradi, at the morning of nineteenth of Ramadhan month in 40th A.H. the hand of the sordid Al-Muradi extended to the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), who beat him by his saber at the time of supererogatory prayer of dawn at his Mihrab at the holy mosque of Kufa, while the nation used to yearning over coming on the offensive powers and of perversity, which are lead by Mu'awiya in (Shaam) Syria.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) remained suffered from his injury for three days, through which he entrusted to his son Imam Al-Hassan the prophet's grandson (peace be upon him) by the Imama (leadership), and along with these three days, he (peace be upon him) used to utter by Allah remembrance, and the satisfaction with Allah's destiny, and the submission to His command, he also used to declare about the commandment after the commandment inviting them to Allah's (the Sublime) rules implement, admonishing them from the inclination and withdrawal from the Islamic mission carrying, and on this occasion we select part of his commandment by which he addressed his sons Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) and his family members and the generations of the Islamic nation in the future as follows:

(I advise you (both) to avoid Allah….Be enemies against the oppressor and supporter for the wronged.

I advise you (both) and all my children and members of my family and every one who receives my message to fear Allah, to keep your affairs in order, and to maintain good relations among yourselves....Avoid Allah in your neighbors' concerning, avoid Allah in the Qur'an concerning…Avoid Allah in your Lord's House (K'aba) concerning. Don't forsake it so long as long as you alive….avoid Allah in the Holy ware concerning with the help of your property, lives, and tongues in the way of Allah. You should keep on your kinship respect and on spending for others.

Avoid turning away from each other and serving mutual relations. Don't give up bidding for good and forbidding from evil, otherwise; the mischievous shall gain position over you, and in case that you prayed, then, your prayer should never be granted….). (sermon no.47 of Nahjil-Balagha from his advice which he left for his two sons Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them). 

 

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) martyrdom

 

At the dawn of the nineteenth day of the blessed Ramadhan month, in 40 A.H., the hand of the cursed Ibn Muljim extended to the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him); he beat him by his poisoned sword, while praying at Al-Kufa Mosque.

Ibn Al-'Atheer commented: Ibn Muljim was brought forth the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), while he was bound, thus Imam (peace be upon him) addressed him: O enemy of Allah, wouldn't I be nice to you, he replayed: yes as you said, He (peace be upon him) said: what thing prompted you to commit this?! Ibn Muljim said: I sharpened it for forty morning (he meant by his sword), and I asked Allah that the most wicked of Allah's creatures should be killed with it, Ali (peace be upon him) replayed him: I never see you save you are killed with it, and I never see you save the most wicked of Allah's creatures, the He (peace be upon him) added:

Soul by soul, in case that I died, then you kill him by the same way he killed me, and in case that I lived, then I would see in him my point of view, O the sons of Abdil-Muttalib! I would never see you while you have shed the Muslims' blood, you say that: the prince of believers is killed, but no one should be killed save my killer, O Hassan; be aware of in case I died because of this my beat, thus you should strike the killer a stroke by a stroke, and you should never mutilate in the man, since I heard the Messenger of God (S.) said: Be aware of mutilation even if it was with a mordacious dog.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) remained three day suffered from the effect of the strike by the offender the criminal Ibn Muljim, through which he entrusted to his son Imam Al-Hassan Al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him) with his wills, and along with these three days he (peace be upon him) used to utter by the remembrance of his Lord, and content with His Decree, and the submission to His command, he also used to give forth the will by the will, though which he invited for Allah's (the Sublime) borders establishment, aware them from the submission to the inclination, and refrain from carrying the Islamic mission.

And finally; in twenty-first of Ramadhan month in 40 A.H. the painful end happened to this splendid Imam, who was oppressed through his life by two grand oppressions, first of them removing him away from his position of caliphate by the way of his haters, and the second of them was killing him in Allah's month, which is the most preferable of the months, so that; he goes to his Lord, while he is killed and martyred, therefore; misfortune of loosing him (peace be upon him) is of the most serious misfortunes, by which the Islamic nation is effected, at the following of misfortune of the prophet's (S.) loosing.

 

* * * * * *

The Tale about Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Holy Tomb

It was mentioned in Nahjil-Balagha book by Ibn Abil-Hadeed as follows:

When Ali (peace be upon him) was killed, his sons intended to hide his grave (according to a will of his own) for the fear of Bani U'maiyeh, the hypocrites, and the rebels, who use to make an accident with his grave, so; they deceived the people concerned to his grave position at that night – the night through which they buried him- various deceits, one time; they tied a coffin with ropes on the back of a camel, from which the scents of camphor diffuse, and they carried it out of Kufa under the darkness of night accompanied with their closes, for the purpose of deceiving the people that they are carrying him to Medina in order to burry him near the grave of Fatima (peace be upon her); and they brought forth a mule over which is a covered funeral to deceive the people that they will burry him in Al-Heera, and they dug the earth at many positions, some of them at the yard of Al-Kufa Mosque, other at the yard of Al-I'mara palace, other in a room of Ju'deh bin Hubaiyra Al-Makhzoomi houses, other is at the center of Abdillah bin Yazeed Al-Quasri house nearby Al-Warraqueen door at the following of Qubleh in the Mosque, and other is in the Kanaseh – a district in Kufa- and other in Ath-Thawiyeh – a position near Jufa- so the position of the grave is hidden in behalf of people, and no one knew about his grave position actually save his sons the closes of his companions, who emerged, while they were carrying him (peace be upon him) at the time of midnight of the twenty-first of Ramadhan month, so they buried him in Najaf at the position which is known by Al-Ghari, according to a will of his (peace be upon him) own to them in this concern, and a security by which he (peace be upon him) entrusted to them, thus; his grave position is hidden in behalf of the communities.

As for Shi'a, successor from ancestor carried about their Imams the sons of the prince of believers (peace be upon him), they agreed on his burial in Al-Ghari, the habitual place today in Najaf Ashraf, and the investigators from Muslims scholars entirely agreed on their view, and the tales concerned it are successively carried. As for Abu Na'eem Al-'Asbahani claim concerned to this grave, it is of Al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba is false, since that Al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba has no a known grave, and it is said that he died in Sham (Syria).

His grave was still hidden (no one knew about it save his sons and the closes of his Shi'a) in this manner till Imam J'afar As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him) lead his friends to it through the days of the Abbasid state, when he visited it, while his coming on Abi Ja'far Al-Mansoor, who was in Al-Hira, so Shi'a found the way to it and began to visit it.

And Imam Ali bin Al-Hussein (peace be upon him) also used to visit the prince of believers (peace be upon him) before that, when he came from Hijaz to Iraq accompanied with his servant, so; he visited him, and returned back. Then, 'Aron Ar-Rasheed the Abbasid Caliph announced about it and acquainted the people with it after the year 170 A.H., so; the people became familiarized with it commonly.

The first person, who built the holy grave was Aron Ar-Rasheed after the year 170 A.H. – since that Ar-Rasheed took upon the reign in 170 A.H. and he died in 193 A.H.- therefore; demonstrating and instructing the grave took place through the period of his reign, he commanded by a dome over the grave to be built with crimson mud, it has four doors, at the top of it a green jar –which is included in the closet today- according to what is mentioned in 'Ayaan Ash-Shi'a book, then, people began to visit him and burry their dead people surrounding him.

The existed building, which is celebrated among An-Najaf Al-'Ashraf inhabitants, that it is built by the way of the first king As-Safawi 'Abbas, who colored the dome by green when it was white color, and it may be that this instruction was performed by the command of Safi As-Safawi king in 1047 A.H. the father of the king 'Abbas As-Safawi, whereas, Safi As-Safawi died in 1052 A.H., thus his son the king 'Abbas As-Safawi completed it in 1057 A.H.

Then, the kings and princes competed to construct it and donate the presents to it. It is a historical high building, over it a golden dome is elevated and two great golden minarets, and it has a vast square nave with five doors lead to its four directions, Muslims come to it from all over the world, to renew their loyalty and visit him.

Then; peace and mercy with blessings be upon you O the father of Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein, and peace with Mercy and blessings be upon the two bedfellows of yours Adam and Noah, and upon the two neighbors of yours Hud and Salih. 

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Grave is a Safe and Sacred Place

Abdil-Lah bin Khazim mentioned as follows: One day I accompanied Ar-Rasheed, who emerged from Kufa for the hunting purpose, then, we moved towards Al-Ghariyain region, so, we looked at lizards, then, we sent the falcons and dogs, who chased them for an hour, thus, the lizards sought refuge with a knoll, who fell down on it, and the flacons fell down aside, and the dogs returned back.

Ar-Rasheed became astonished about this order, then, the lizards came down from the knoll, and the flacons and dogs also came down from it, thus, the lizards returned back to the knoll, and the dogs and flacons returned back from them, so; they practiced that three times.

Ar-Rasheed said: hurry to the place, and whomever did you find there, bring him to me, then we brought him an old man from Bani 'Asad.

Arun asked him: tell me about this knoll?

He said: In case that you granted me safe, I will tell you.

Ar-Rasheed replayed him: the covenant of Allah and His guarantee is for you that I will never cause you bothered nor I will agitate you.

The 'Asadi Shaikh said: my father told me about his fathers who said as follows:

The grave of Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) is at the top of this knoll, which Allah made it a sacred place and nothing that refuges to it unless it became safe.

 

* * * * * *

Holiness of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) personality

No admonition upon the pen in case it refrains from describe an incorporeal highborn individuality, whom (the Sublime) Allah particularized with natural endowments and virtues, and it is sufficient that which Tariqu bin Shahaab narrated as follows:

I visited Abdullah bin 'Abbas, while a group of the Migrants' children came on him, they asked him: O Ibn 'Abbas! How can you describe the man, Ali bin Abi Talib?

He replayed as follows: His inner is filled with wisdom, science, bravery, intrepidity, kinship of the Messenger of God (S.).

'Akrima narrated about Ibn 'Abbas as follows:

No phrase of (O those! Who believed) in the Qur'an descended unless that Ali is on the top of its purpose and the price of it, whereas; Allah (the Sublime) blamed the companions of Muhammad (S.) on other occasions, but He (the Sublime) never mentioned Ali save by commendation.

Sa'eed bin Jubaiyr narrated about Ibn 'Abbas as follows:

Nothing is brought down of Allah's remembrance in the right of any one in the likeness of which is brought down in the right of Ali (peace be upon him).

Ibn 'Abbas commented that: More than three hundred verses are brought down in Ali's commendation.

Now, it is sufficient to explain about Ali's (peace be upon him) conduct by two briefed statements of his two students who accompanied him secretly and openly:

1- Ibn 'Abbas said, while he was asked about Ali (peace be upon him):

May Allah be pleased with Ali Abal-Hassan, by God! He was head of guidance, the container of piety, the eminence reason, the position of arguments, the cloud of dew, the utmost of science for beings, light appeared within the darkness, caller of the great love, upholder fast  to the most binding Grip, most piety than whoever assumes power, and put on garment, the most generous one who witnessed the private conference after Muhammad Al-Mustafa, who prayed in the direction of two Qublehs, the father of two grandsons, and his spouse is the all honest of women, none can overshadow him, rather; my eyes never saw alike to him, but; I never heard by alike to him, therefore; may Allah's curse and that of servants' be showered upon whoever detested him to the Judgment Day.

2-Mu'awiya asked Dhirar bin Hamzah about Ali's peace be upon him) characteristics after the death of Ali (peace be upon him):

He said: Characterize Ali for me, he replayed: would you excuse me? He repeated: Characterize him, he asked: would you excuse me please? He said: I will never excuse you, he said: As for no avoidable, then I will characterize him for you as I knew him:

By God! He was with vast view, strong power, says illustratively and judges justly, the science springs from his sides, and the wisdom utters from all his sides, he became worried of the present life and its beauty, while he feels at ease with the night and its darkness, by God! He was with full tear, long cerebrating, turns his palms up and down and talk to himself, he appeals to the course of garments, and to the roughage of food.

He used to behave as one of us, answered us if we asked him and begun us if we came on him, and he came to us if we invited him, and although he approached us to his nearness, by God! We never talked to him because of his solemnity, and we never started him because of his glory, in case that he smiled, in the arranged pearls likeness his teeth seemed, he glorified the religion inhabitants, he liked the miserable people, that neither a mighty wished by his falsehood, nor a weakling despaired from his equity. By God! I witness that I already looked at him in some of his positions, while the night loosened its veils, and its stars sunk, thus; he already presented at his prayer niche caught with his beard, fidgeted in the likeness of the ailing fidgetiness, and wept in the likeness of the grieved weepy, as if I used to listen to him, while he said as follows:

(O’ world, O’ world! Get away from me. Why do you present yourself to me? Or are you eager for me? You may not get that opportunity to impress me. Deceive some other person. I have no concern with you. I have divorced you thrice where after there is no restitution. Your life is short, your importance is little and your liking is humble. Alas! The provision is little, the way is long, the journey is far, and the goal is hard to reach. Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.570 selections from his sayings and preaching, selection of Dhirar narrative.

He added: then the tears of Mu'awiyah dropped over his beard, while he couldn't stop them, and began to dry them by his own sleeve, thus; the company already strangulated because of their crying, then Mu'awiyah said: May Allah be pleased with Abal-Hassan, he was as you mentioned, O Dhirar! But; how is your grief upon him? He replayed: (My grief is in the likeness of that whose infant has been killed at her lap).

These are fragments from his virtues, and quotations from his numerous exploits, which the history kept from the hands' wordplay. Whereas; no one knew Ali save his Lord (the Sublime), and the great mission owner, Al-Mustafa (S.) his cousin. 

 

* * * * * *

The Fraternizing between Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the Prophet (S.)

The Messenger of God (S.) began to establish the blessed Islamic state, he instructed the Mosque to be a center for leadership, and a center of his government in addition to the worship and intellectual functions, then he (S.) turned towards the inner field instruction, and fortify the social relations.

The Messenger of God (S.) fraternized between the Migrants (Muhajireen) and Supporters ('Ansaar) in the twelfth of Ramadhan month of 1 A.H., and it was transmitted about him, that He (S.) fraternized between Abi Bakr and Kharija bin Zaid, between U'mar and U'tban bin Malik, between Ma'ath bin Jabal and Abi Thar Al-Gihffari, between Huthaifa bin Al-Yamaan and Ammar bin Yasir, between Mas'ab bin U'mair and Abi Aiyoob, between Salmaan and Abid-Dard'a, ….

When the Messenger of God (S.) became empty from fraternizing between his companions, Ali (peace be upon him) came on him, while his two eyes were watering, and said: O Messenger of God (S.)! You fraternized between your companions, but didn't fraternize between me and other one? The Messenger of God (S.) said: (You are surely my brother in the present, and hereafter life), the poet Abu Tammam recited poems on this occasion, thus; we mention its meaning as follows:

His brother and son-in-law in a case boasting is considered, no a brother or a son-in-law is in the likeness of his own.

The project of fraternizing for which the Messenger of God (S.) invited Muslims is considered the most strong of the Islamic policies, on which the Holy Qur'an urged, the text already came in a limited style through His (the Sublime) saying: (Believers truly are brothers) please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-Hujurat, verse no.10.

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Staying in the Prophet's Bed

Jabrail (peace be upon him) informed the Prophet (S.) about the Sublime Allah, Who commanded him by traveling to Medina, so; he sent about Ali the prince of believers (peace be upon him) and informed him about this commandment and told him as follows:

Allah the Sublime commanded me by commanding you to stay in my bed, so that you must conceal my sign by staying in it, then; what do you see? Ali replayed: O Prophet of Allah would you be in safe by this my staying in your bed? The Messenger of God (S.) said: Yes. Thus, Ali (peace be upon him) smiled, and laughed, then; he dropped towards the earth prostrating.

Ali (peace be upon him) stayed in the bed of the prophet (S.) at that night he adjust himself to the slaughter, then; men of Quraish tribe came for the purpose of the conspiracy fulfillment, and when they managed to put their swords in him, while they didn't suspect that he is Muhammad (S.), they awoken him, so; they discovered that he is Ali, then; they left him, and separated for the purpose of search about the Messenger of God (S.).

And before that happens the Messenger of God (S.) migrated to Medina, he joined to Ali (peace be upon him) and commanded him by going to Mecca and announce among people as follows:

Whoever had a consignment or a deposit with Muhammad, he should come to us to bring it back to him. Then, he told him that: They could never reach to you from this moment – O Ali- you are with an order you disliked till you come on me, thus; you give my deposits before the people's very eyes openly.

And, when the Prophet (S.) settled in Medina Munawwara, he wrote Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) a message through which, he commanded him by joining to him.

The prince of believers (peace be upon him) emerged out of Mecca accompanied the Fawatim's caravan, traveled to Madeenah, they are Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of God (S.), his mother Fatima the daughter of 'Asad bin Hashim, and Fatima the daughter of Az-Zubaiyr bin Abd Al-Mut-Talib, then masked group of men from Quraish chased him, so; he knew them, and addressed them as follows:

I am going to join to my cousin, and whoever of you desired to attack to me, he should follow me, then; I would cut his meat and shade his blood, or he would go far from me, then he went on and stationed at every station he appealed, so; he used to remember Allah (the Sublime) with his companions of Al-Fawatim, who used to pray upright, seated and on their sides, and when they arrived to Medeenah, the remembrance of Allah (the Sublime) is brought down (Then their Lord has responded to them, (saying), "I do not waste the deed of any doer among you, any male or female- the one of you is as he other). Please refer to the Holy Qur'an, 'Al Imran chapter, verse no. 195.

Thus; the Messenger of God (S.) recited the brought down verse on their hearings, therefore; the male was Ali (peace be upon him), and the female were Al-Fawatim (the Fatimids), then He (S.) said to Ali (peace be upon him):

O Ali, you are surely the first one of this nation, who believed with Allah and his Messenger, and the first one of them, who migrated to Allah and his Messenger, and you are the last one who will see off his Messenger, no one who loves you –By Whom He the soul of the Messenger is at his hand- save that whose heart was examined by Allah for the belief, and no one detested you save that who was a hypocrite or an infidel.

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and Ad-Daar narrative

The social consideration necessitated that, the Messenger of God (S.) should appoint a leader upon the nation as a successor after him, for the purpose of prevention inconsistency and dissociation emerge among them after him, and to ensure the continuance availability of the Islamic union by the way of fortifying it with strong defensive fence.

Fortifying the nation and saving it from the inauspicious events, and impeding from every group acclamation by the leadership for himself save the others, then the struggle because of the leadership and caliphate concerning; which never be achieved save by the way of a leader appointing upon the nation, and not to leave the order for the fates.

These considerations leads us to (At-Tansees) theory soundness concerned to appointing a leader at the following of the Messenger of God (S.), for this reason and other reasons the Messenger of Islam (S.) propounded the caliphate matter since the beginning of Islamic mission, rather; he remained to pronounce about it continuously along with his life, while he appointed his successor and nominated him by the way of explicit text, which is clear and illustrated text at the beginning of the Islamic mission (Ad-Daar narrative), and Al-Ghadeer narrative, even at the last minutes of his life (the narrative of paper and ink) also. Then we will illustrate all these events at the following:

In addition to the rational and philosophical evidences which proof the certainty of the (text upon the succession to the prophet), there are narratives and tales came about considerable ways which demonstrate the position and opinion reality towards which the Shiite's scholars moved and certified. Whereas, the prophet (S.) nominated the caliph after him through his prophet hood period repeatedly, therefore; the public election is nonexistent.

When Allah (the Almighty) commanded him to warn his nearest relatives about the painful Divine punishment, and to invite them for the belief of the Divine unity before that he invited the common people for it; he gathered forty men of the authoritatives of Bani Hashim and bani Abdil-Muttalib, and he stood and delivered an oration upon their hearings, as follows:

"Whoever of you can support me on this order on a condition he will be my brother, my trustworthy and successor"?

People kept silent, while Imam Ali (peace be upon him) stood on his two feet, and announced about his support ness and assistance towards him, then; the Messenger of God (S.) took with his neck, and turned towards the attainders, and addressed them:

"This truly is my brother, successor, and my caliph among of you"

Therefore; this narrative is already known at the interpreters and talkers by the name of (The day of Ad-Daar) and (The tradition of the mission beginning).

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) nominating on the day of Ghadeer Khom

 

When the Messenger of God (S.) emptied from the last pilgrimage to the Holy Ka'beh, he returned back to Al-Medina Munawareh, and when his caravan arrived to Ghadeer Khom, Jibra'il descended on him, while He was carrying the command of Heaven with great importance.

This command enforced him to camp for the purpose of this important function fulfillment, which is appointing the prince of believers Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as his successor (Calipha) and an authority upon the nation after Him (S.).

Rather; the command of Heaven contained a kind of obligation and focused on hastening in circulating this tale among Muslims.

The Remembrance came down on Him (S.) as follows:

(O you Messenger, proclaim whatever has been sent down to you from your Lord; and in case you do not perform (that), in no way have you proclaimed His Message; and Allah safeguards you from mankind). [Please refer to the Holy Qur'an Al-Ma'idah chapter verse no. 67]

The remembrance already warned the Prophet (S.), in case he didn't response to Allah's will, his endeavors and exhaustions would be in vain, and what he faced of troubles in the way of this religion establishment would be eliminated.

Therefore; the Prophet (S.) occupied himself with a firm determination, and a solid desire to establish Allah's will, thus; he put away the burdens of travel, and camped in the excessive heat of midday, then he commanded the caravans by behave in the same way he behaved.

The time was at the utmost of heat even that, every one used to put the end of his garment under his feet to avoid the heat by it.

Then He (S.) commanded the crowds by the collection, and led them in prayer, and after the prayer completion, he ordered them by putting the saddles of camels together to be a platform, thus they fulfilled his command.

Then, he rose up over them, while the number of presenters –according to the historians' transmission- was one hundred thousand individuals, or more than this number.

They came on the Messenger of God (S.) with their full yearning for the purpose of hearing to his oration, so; he (S.) delivered on their hearings about what he faced of troubles and sufferings because of leading them to the warfare and save them from the life of pre Islam to the honorable life which Islam brought for them.

He (S.) also mentioned some of the rules of religion, and obliged on them to practice in the real life, then he (S.) addressed them: (You look; how will you behave with the two heavy things).

A caller of people inquired: O Messenger of God! What will be the two heavy things?

He (S.) replayed him:

(The great heavy thing will be Allah's Book, its first end is at the hand of "the Sublime" Allah, and the other end is at your hands, thus; you adhere to it, you will never go astray.

And the other is the little heavy thing, whereas; the Subtle, the all knowing truly told me about them that they will never be separated till they come on me at the fort, so; I asked my Lord for them in this concern; therefore you must never precede them since you will be vanished, and you must never omit them, since will be vanished).

Then He (S.) took hold with the hand of his trustee and the gate of his city of science Imam Ali (peace be upon him) to impose his loyalty upon them as a whole, even that their two armpits whiteness became witnessed for the people, so they looked at them.

Then; the Messenger of God (S.) elevated his sound, and said as follows:

(O people! Who will be worthier from the people with the believers than themselves?)

All the crowds replayed him: Allah and his Messenger is more knowing.

He (S.) replayed them:

(Allah surely is the Chief over me, and I am the chief over the believers, and I am worthier with them than themselves, therefore; whomever I was his chief, Ali is his chief).

He (S.) repeated this saying three or four times on their hearings, then he (S.) said as follows:

(O God be friend to whoever be a friend to him, and be foe to whoever be foe to him, and like whoever liked him, and abominate whoever abominated him, and stand by whoever stood by him, and disappoint whoever disappointed him, and cause the right turns whenever he turned away therefore; the presenters must inform the absentees).

By these terms he (S.) concluded his honored oration, by the way of which he carried the message of Allah to the people; so, he appointed the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) as a caliph upon Muslims, and set him as an authority of nation, and charged him with the Imama responsibility.

Then; Muslims came on Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) meeting and paying him Homage as caliphate, they congratulated him on this occasion.

And the Prophet (S.) commanded the mothers of believers by coming on him and congratulating him, thus; they carried out his command.

And when Hassan bin Thabit emerged asking the Prophet (S.) to recite what he composed of poems on this occasion, the Prophet (S.) allowed him for this purpose. Hassan recited his poems, thus; we mention their meaning as follows:

Their prophet calls them on the day of Al-Ghdeer; here we are hearing to Him (S.), while he is calling for us.

Therein; he said: who is your chief and prophet? They replayed him, while they didn't declare the carelessness there:

Your Lord is our Chief and you are our prophet, therefore; you will never observe a reign disobedient among us.

He commanded him: O Ali; stand up, therefore; I appointed you as an Imam and a leader after me.

Therefore; whoever I was his chief, this is his chief, so; you be faithful and loyal friends of his own.

Thereafter; he invocated: O God be friend to whomever be friend to him, and be enemy against whoever be enemy against Ali.

Then; the Holy verse was brought down in the Islam world on the occasion of this immortal day, which is as follows:

(Today I have completed your religion for you, and I have perfected my favor on you, and I am satisfied with Islam as a religion for you). Please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-M'idah Chapter, verse no.3.

Then; the religion is completed by the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) appointment as a caliph and the grace of Allah is completed upon Muslims by their religion's rules elevation, and their leadership elevation, which establishes their desires in honorable life achievement.

The Prophet (S.) already stepped by that the last step for the purpose of his nation's save from the sedition and aberration.

So; He (S.) didn't leave its affairs disordered -as they claimed-, rather; he appointed the leader and the guider upon it, who uses to take care of its political and social affairs.

And this great homage, which the honest Messenger of God (S.) concluded for Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is truly of the strongest evidence related to the caliphate and Imama designation with Ali (peace be upon him).

Imam Hussein (peace be upon him) argued by it against Mu'awiya's government in Mecca, and he (peace be upon him) condemned his policy, he (peace be upon him) already addressed the audiences as follows:

(I ask you by God; would you know that the Messenger of God (S.) appointed him – He refers to Ali (peace be upon him) – on Ghadeer Khom day, when He (S.) announced by the reign for him (peace be upon him), and He (S.) said: the witness would inform the absentee?).

The audiences replayed: O, yes by God.

 

* * * * * *

Those who protested against Imam Ali (peace be upon him) appointment

The Prophet (S.) nominated the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) as an Imam on the day of Ghadeer Khum according to the descended verses from the Heaven in this concern as follows:

(O you Messenger, proclaim whatever has been sent down to you from your Lord). Please refer to the Holy Qur’an, Al-M’aideh chapter, verse. No. 67.

And after the appointment took place, the caravan of prophecy and Imama traveled from Ghadeer Khom to Madeenah Munawarah, and the heart of the prophet (S.) became calm, and safe, but Quraish didn’t calm down, or relieved, rather it became in a boiling state of irritation.

The befalling torment:

Names of several individuals majority of them are from Quraish tribe are already mentioned through the narratives by the ways of As-Sunneh and Shi’a sects, they denied the prophet’s (S.) announcement related to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) appointment concerned to the reign in Ghadeer Khom.

In brief; some one of these individuals –or more than one according to the various narratives- accused the Messenger of God (S.) by appointing Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as a ruler upon the nation, which was according to his desire, and it was not according to Allah's (the Sublime) command, thus; the Messenger of God (S.) informed him about the decree was according a command of Allah (the Sublime).

The protestant left the prophet (S.), while he was furious, and was invoking Allah (the Sublime) to drop a stone upon him from the heaven, in case this command was from Him (the Sublime).

Then, Allah (the Sublime) sent down a stone of baked clay upon him, so it caused him killed and burnt, therefore; Allah (the Sublime) brought down his remembrance as follows:

(A questioner asked of befalling torment). [Please refer to the Holy Qur’an, Al-Ma’arij Chapter, verse no1].

This event also reveals about the frightening employment by Allah (the Sublime) towards Quraish, for the purpose of preserving His Messenger (S.) from the engagements of apostasy movement, which Quraish May set out for it.

 

 

* * * * * *

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) argument against Abi Bakr concerned to Fadak

Ali (peace be upon him) came to Abi Bakr, who was at the Mosque, while the Migrants and Supporters were sitting surround him, he addressed him: O Aba Bakr! Why did you deprive Fatima her right and heritage from her father the Messenger of God (S.)? While she already possessed it through the life of the Messenger of God (S.).

Abu Bakr said: This is of Muslims' spoils, then; in case that you prepared witnesses, who witness that the Messenger of God (S.) donated it to her, otherwise; she has no right in it.

The prince of believers (peace be upon him) said: O Aba Bakr! Would you judge in us on the contrary of Allah's (the Sublime) ruling in Muslims?

He said: No.

Ali (peace be upon him) said: In case that something in the hand of Muslims they possessed, then I claimed that it is mine, thus; from whom would you ask about the evidence?

He said: I would ask you about the evidence.

Ali (peace be upon him) said: What concern to Fatima, whom you asked about the evidence of a thing, is at her hand? While she possessed it through the life of the Messenger of God (S.) and after his death. Thus; you didn't ask Muslims about the evidence concerned to what they claimed of, in the same way that you asked me about what I claimed by?

Abu Bakr kept silent.

U'mar said: O Ali! Leave us from your disputation concern; sine we haven't the ability of arguing you! But; in case you brought us honest and just witnesses, otherwise, it is of Muslims' properties, and you have no right or Fatima in it!!

Ok, Oh U'mar; you have no ability to argue Ali, since he never utters but by the sayings of Allah's (the Sublime) Book, and His Prophet's judgment, then; you didn't ask him about the judgment of Allah concerned to Fadak, rather; you asked him for sound…. Witnesses, since; the rule of Allah is fixed, while the witnesses and their equity adhere to the desires and appetites.

The Prince of believers (peace be upon him) said: O Aba Bakr, would you read the Book of Allah?

He replayed: O yes.

Ali (peace be upon him) said: tell me about Allah's (the Sublime) saying: Allah surely desires to remove the uncleanness from you O the House inhabitants and purifies you a thorough purification). –refer to the Holy Qur'an Al-Ahzab chapter, verse no. 33- in whom concern it is brought down, in our concern or in the concern of other one save us.

He replayed: it is brought down in your concerning.

Ali (peace be upon him) said: In case those witnesses testified that Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of God (S.) committed adultery, what would you do with her?

He replayed: I shall establish the punishment in her right as I usual establish it in the right of Muslim women.

The prince of believer Ali (peace be upon him) said: O Aba Bakr! Then; your are just from disbelievers.

Abu Bakr said: Why?

Ali (peace be upon him) said: since; you rejected Allah's (the Sublime) witness by the purification, and preferred the people's testifying upon it, as if you rejected the rule of Allah (the Sublime), and the rule of his Messenger, who made Fadak her own property, and she possessed it through his life, then you preferred to an Arabian's witness, who used to urinate on his two heels, and sized Fadak from her, and claimed that it is of Muslims' properties, and the Messenger of God (S.) said: (The evidence is upon the complainant, and the oath is upon the defendant), thus; you rejected the saying of the Messenger of God (S.): the evidence is upon whoever claimed, and the oath is upon whoever a defendant.

Thus; people muttered and denied, and looked at each other, and said: "By God! Ali bin Abi Talib said truthfully".

* * * * * *

 

Disputation of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) concerned to Al-Ghdeer Event

This narrative still one of the agreed fundamentals since the beginning of Islam and through the first centuries, even to the present century, with which the near believed, and the remote narrates it.

Therefore; disputation increased concerned to it, and the disputation about it took place severally among the companions and the followers, through the period of the prince of the believers Ali (peace be upon him) and before it.

Whereas, first disputation about this narrative took place by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) at the Mosque of the Messenger of God (S.), after his death, and that was mentioned by Saleem bin Quias Al-Hilali through his book.

Other disputation took place by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) on the day of Ash-Shoora (consultation), which Al-Khawarzimi Al-Hanafi narrated in his Al-Manaquib book vol.2, p.127 about Abi At-Tufayl 'Amir bin Wathileh, who said as follows:

It happened at the door step of the house in which Ali (peace be upon him) sit on the day of consultation, and I heard him, while he was talking to them –U'thman bin 'Affan, Talheh, Az-Zubair, S'ad bin Abi Waquas, and 'Abdir-Rahmaan bin 'Awf; he said as follows:

I will argue you with what your Arab and nonarab cannot alter.

Also he (peace be upon him) added:

O people! I ask you entirely by God, is there any one among you, who professed belief in the unity of Allah before me?

They replayed him: No.

Then; He (peace be upon him) said:

I ask you by God, is there any one among you save me, who has a brother like mine Ja'far At-Tayaar, who accompanied the angels in the paradise?

They replayed him: No by God.

Then, he (peace be upon him) said:

 I ask you by God, is there any one among you save me, who has an uncle like my uncle Hamzeh, who is the lion of Allah, and the lion of his messenger, and the chief of martyrs?

They replayed him: No by God.

Then; he (peace be upon him) said:

I ask you by God, is there any one among you save me, who has a spouse like mine Fatima the daughter of Muhammad (S.), the mistress of women of paradise inhabitants?

They replayed him: No by God.

Then he (peace be upon him) said:

I ask you by God! Is there any one among you save me, who has two grandsons like mine Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein the two chiefs of youths of paradise inhabitants?

They replayed him: No by God.

Then he (peace be upon him) said as follows:

I ask you by God! Is there any one among you save me, who confided the Messenger of God (S.) secretly several times close to him? - meant that he gave alms in his (S.) presence-.

They replayed him: No, by Go.

Then; he (peace be upon him) said as follows:

I ask you by God; is there any one among you save me, to whom the Messenger of God (S.) said:

Whomsoever I was his chief,  Ali is his chief, O God, be friend towards whosoever be a  friend to him, and be enemy towards whomsoever antagonized him, and You stand by whomsoever  stood by him; therefore the witness  must propagate the absentee?

They replayed him: No by God.

This tradition is brought forth by:

Ibn Jareer At-Tabari in his book (Al-Ghadeer), Al-Hafidh At-Tabarani narrated it completely; Al-Hafidh Ad-Daar Qutni also narrated it, Al-Hafidh Ibn 'Asakir brought it forth by his way through his Tareekh book.

Al-Quadhi Abu Abdillah Al-Hussein bin Haroon Al-Dhabi brought it forth along with its length through his Amaali book, and Al-Hakim An-Niysabouri narrated it through his book (Hadeeth At-Taiyr).

Al-Hafidh Ibn Mardaweh narrated it, and Abul-Hassan Ali bin U'mar Al-Quzwini brought it forth in his book (Al-'Amali), and Ibn Al-Mghazili brought it forth along with its length through his Al-Manaquib book.

Al-Hafidh Ibn Asakir brought it forth along with its length through his (Tareekh Damascus) book, and through mentioning the biography of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), by several ways, which ends to Abi At-Tufail.

He also brought it forth with its full length through his Tareekh book, in U'thman's biography concerning, Al-Kinji also brought it forth through Kifayat At-Talib book.

Ath-Thahabi brought it forth through his Al-Ghadeer book, by the way of At-Tabari, through Al-Ghadeer book by the ways of Tradition (Whomever I was his chief...), restricted to what is concerned to Al-Ghadeer narrative.

As-Syuti narrated it along with its length from Abi Thahr through (Jam' Aj-Jawaami' book), and through (Musnad Fatima book), and Al-Hindi through (Kanzil-U'maal book).

With all these numerous ways, then Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi comments on His (the Al-Mighty) saying concerning as follows:

(Surely your patron is only Allah and His Messenger, and the ones who have believed, who keep up the prayer and bring the Zakat, and are bowing down "to Allah"). Please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-Ma'ideh chapter, verse no.55:

(Ali is truly more knowing with the Qur'an interpretation than these refusals (Ar-Rawaafidh); then if only this verse shows the meaning of his Imama "leadership", he shall declare it as evidence openly on the hearings of the masses at an assembly of the assemblies.

And; it is impossible for them to say that: He left it for the purpose of dissimulation, rather; they tell about him, that he used to argue about Al-Ghadeer event, Al-Mubahala (the ordeal) narrative, and he mentioned all his good treaties and marvels, while he didn't mention this verse yet in concern to his Imama evidence).

The knower Al-Ameeni replayed him as follows:

(Ar-Razi in concern to the refusals attributing with Al-Ghadeer event argument and other than it, is truly eager to what he searches about the facts because of partisanship, you already knew about Al-Hanafi Al-Khawarzimi, who relates about his Shaikhs the memorizers like Abi Ya'li, Ibn Mardaweh, the memorizers of the tradition, and the heads of transmitters...etc).

Then the Al-Ameeni the knower commented that:

(From that commonly you can derive the value of what As-Siyuti inclined of judgment in concern to the tradition invention, for the position of Zafir, and an unknown man through Al-'Aquili ascription.

We already acquainted you with ascriptions in which no Zafir and no unknown man; suppose that we overlooked the weakness in Zafir.

Would the weakness in a bare narrative from truthfulness stimulate the categorical judgment concerned to the position? As As-Siyuti considered it on the all occasions in his L'ali' book, on the contrary of what the composers go on in concern to other subjects than it? No; but it is the weakness concerned to the view, and the slightness of insight, since that, the utmost in concern to the narrative weaklings is the pretense nihility with it, even if the advocating of it was unobjectionable.

Rather; we find the reliable memorizers, who are corroborated in the transmission, perhaps that they were brought out of the weaklings, because of the existence of truthfulness of evidences are charged with the narrative concerning, or in the book of their special man of their own.

So; they consider it because of its emergency of common weak judgment, or their belief with the assurance concerned to the man's transmission, even if he was not satisfied because of his other behaviors).

Then, Al-'Ameeni added: (please refer to Saheeh Muslim and Al-Bukhari, and the other Sihah and Musnads, you will find them filled with the narratives from rebels (Khawaarij), and the anti shia', would that be save for the pretension; that we mentioned?

Then; Zafir is authenticated by Ahmad, and Ibn Mu'een and Abu Dawood said: He is trustee, he was a pious man.

Abu Hatam also said: His position is the honesty, As-Siyuti imitated Ath-Thahabi through his Mizan book in this his slander. while he observed the tradition is denied, and not true.

Ibn Hijr came after him, and imitated him in his style, and he accused Zafir by inventing it, whereas, Ath-Thahabi and Ibn Hijr are known to whoever was familiarized with them through the scale on which a thousand eye, and the tongue which the slander don't leave it for a vulnerable purposes.

Then; you come to Ath-Thahabi's abridgement (Mustadrak Al-Hakim), you will find it a slander to Sih'a concerned to what was transmitted in Muhammad's progeny favorite, while no argue in it save his certain enmity towards them, and his siding with whom, who antagonized them, then; Ibn Hijr followed him in his style).

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) priority concerned to the Prophet's Succession

The fair-minded examiner –whoever was been- is truly no avoidable that he will be effected with the amazement, and the surprise will inter his mind, whenever he searches carefully and deliberately about what the book of biographies and tradition sources are filled with of narratives, to which is pointed by the fingertips, and it is surrounded with the auras of veneration and holiness of narratives, traditions, and events, however the fingers of distortion and falsification left influences, they are not hidden, and signs are unavailable to be distinguished, which effected this True Religion profoundly, and opened an eminence gate for the inhabitants of corrupted designs.

Rather; the wonder of wonders, that you find– a great number of clear antithesis's are unavailable to be hidden in behalf of a simple reader- included within every treatise, and book - apart from the expert researcher- they express clearly about forgery and perversion treated with many of the holy Messenger's (S.) traditions, and the sayings of faithful companions of the prophet (S.) with great insolence, so it made to district and distort the pure Islam.

Perhaps; that Al-Ghadeer event –with its great holiness- is exposed to a greater forgery activity as a pastureland for those who are fruitless souls owners anciently and recently, they tried anyhow to empty this Heavenly command from its credibility, and its real meaning, and carry it either between the disgraceful denial or the censured interpretation.

Then; these skinny years are found after the death of the Messenger of God (S.) to this our recent day, they are full of these contrarieties, and these paradoxes.

Perhaps that the main misfortune is a generation of contemporary writers after those ancients received the heritage inherited from them – in spite of its contrarieties and its contradiction to the rationality and mind- and consider it as incontestable order with no conception or examination.

As if this order was not a command of Divine or a divinely obligation, rather; their situation is like those about whom Allah (the Almighty) expressed in His Holy Qur'an as follows:

(They have said, "Surely we found our fathers upon a course, and surely we are guided upon their tracks" (The Holy Qur'an Az-Zukhruf chapter: verse no.22).

Therefore; the serious crime to which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) appointed and exposed is neither a birth of recent day, nor of near yesterday; as much as it has of deep exertion beating in the roots of history, rather; it contemporaries to the Heaven mission's light emanation.

Whereas, the consciences of corruptive ones agreed to each other –even if their principals varied- on the liberal Islamic religion leading to what the ancient Heaven religions are led to, of serious deviation, and dreadful misrepresentation.

Since; it is of naivety that every one of these crimes is taken separately, and to be disputed separated from other crimes, about the lasting struggle between the good and evil, and between light and darkness.

Therefore; who will be Ali (peace be upon him)?!!

Wasn't he save the Messenger's (S.) soul likeness, he was provided with his science and perception, and he acquired from him, which the others couldn't acquire, rather; he (peace be upon him) was a real distention of Him (S.) save the others.

Wouldn't his (peace be upon him) palm equal to the palm of the Messenger of God (S.) in the equitability concerning?

Wouldn't he (peace be upon him) be with the right and the right with him, wherever he turned away?

 Wouldn't he (peace be upon him) if only was appointed as a caliph over Muslims' affairs – as such as Allah the Almighty and his Messenger (S.) appointed him for this function- save that he carried Muslims on the right, and led them on the straight way, the way of right.

Yes, it is considered from the naivety; that Ali (peace be upon him) is enabled from taking over the Caliphate zenith, and amounts its head, since that this shall never alter a thing of situation after the Messenger of God (S.).

Thus; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) shall emerge for them as if he was the Prophet Muhammad (S.), he shall establish the monotheism foundations, and stoop as an impediment against their corrupted hopes, which are never be ended to a fixed border, nor a known extension.

Perhaps that a simple research for some of happenings' developments, will illustrate a visible side of that serious scheme, which however the purposes of its owners varied, but all these purposes would agree on one goal, which is the mission of Heaven emptiness from its real substance, and pushing Muslims to wards chasm of deterioration and degradation. And those who makes us confused, and enables the kings and leaders from taking upon the reign and Caliphate save the real right owners, who are also the real present life owners, thus; they denied the role of Messenger of Allah (S.) and his successor Ali and his sons (peace be upon them), who are the hereafter reign owners as much as the present life owners.

Only they carried about Aba Bakr and U'mar, who didn't die even they determined through their will to entrust by the caliphate to others, but; more wonderful than this, you truly can find those illegible constructions for clear texts, and that more wonderful is carrying of the clear events.

Thus; all people do not conceive - without least of suspicion- that the Messenger of God (S.) never talks in a style of enigmas and puzzles, nor a fair-minded and percipient one can say by that.

Then; what did he (S.) mean by Ath-Thaqualain celebrated tradition?

And what did he (S.) mean by his saying to Ali (peace be upon him):

(Wouldn't you accept to be from me as Arun's position related to Musa?)

and what did he (S.) mean by his saying also:

(Ali is the chief of every believer and of she believer after me)?

Therefore; if there was whoever turns away from the word of truth, and the truths is hidden in behalf of him, then; what's the matter with him in concern to the witnesses, while tens of thousand Muslims witnessed Al-Ghadeer event, according to the sound narratives which tell about this event in the books.

Rather; other books mentioned the companions' congratulations to Ali (peace be upon him) on this occasion, by the way of sound Sihah are never be invalidated.

Seemly; that this order is not hidden, however they strived to obliterate those brilliant and clear facts.

* * * * * *

 

The Way which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) followed concerned to his right demand

Someone who neither has the exactness of perception, nor he masters reading about the accidents and policy of religious persons, he observes the matters through a narrow circle, which leads him to understand that Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) celebrated bravery will never be consistent with his calmness concerned to demanding by his right, and the matter of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) refrain from adhering to the weapon for the purpose of put an end to his struggle against the group, is of the historical axioms.

And in case that a will and text were available, he would never leave his right, and he would never refrain from his weapon drawing against them, while; he had no lack for courage and power, which the battles that he involved in accompanied with the Messenger of God (S.) authenticated him.

Actually; this kind of historical analysis of event shows the short view, and shortening in the observation concerned to the matters from one side, since; a wide difference is between the man who lives for the principle, and that who never moves save for the present life interests, and he employs every tool in order to reach to his purpose.

Therefore; the prince of believers (peace be upon him) was a valorous man, but he didn’t employ his bravery for his personal advantages, or for the worldly cupidity, rather; his bravery was for Allah pleasure, and against the enemies of Allah (the Sublime).

Some people look pleasantly at the bravery of the prince of believers (peace be upon him), but they look at it in the likeness of looking at the braveries of ‘Antarah bin Shaddad, and Saif bin Thi Yazan, therefore; the resemblance of this kind of thought is very simple.

It is worthiest by us to search about this bravery and heroism, how they were employed, and in the pleasure of whom?

It is not pride that the man is a valiant and dauntless to encroach on the rights, and to terror the others, this is exactly the censured absolutism.

The bravery of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his heroism are distinguished with that; they never be employed for the purpose of a personal and worldly interests.

Rather; the prince of believers (peace be upon him) used to own of rein of bravery, and he used to control his power bridle, and then he directs it towards Allah’s satisfaction, and his religion support.

It is narrated about him (peace be upon him), when he knocked down ‘Amr bin Wid on the day of Al-Khandaqu battle, he delayed in his head cutting off, and he paused before he beats him.

And when he returned back, the prophet asked him about this matter, he replayed as follows:

(He abused my mother, and spit into my face, so I feared that I strike him for myself revenge, then; I left him till my wrath altered in calmness, then; I killed him for Allah’s pleasure).

Ali the prince of believers (peace be upon him) was a remarkable corroboration of the holy verse:

(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and “the ones” who are with him are strict against the steadfast disbelievers, merciful among themselves). Please refer to the holy Qur’an, Al-Fat-h chapter, verse no.29.

Allah the Sublime already characterized him through other verse, as follows:

(O you who have believed, whosoever of you reverts himself from His religion, then Allah will eventually come up with a people He loves, and who love Him, humble towards the believers, mightily proud towards the disbelievers, striving in the way of Allah; and they do not fear the blame of any blamer. That is the Grace of Allah He brings to whomsoever He decides; and Allah is most Affluent, Ever-Knowing). Please refer to the Holy Qur’an, Al-M’aidah chapter, verse no.54.

Ath-Tha’labi and others narrated that it is brought down in the right of Ali (peace be upon him) concerning, even if it is not particularized with him, so he (peace be upon him) is the most noticeable one of those who are purposed by it.

He (peace be upon him) illustrated the philosophy of his abstention from struggling against them on several occasions, thus; we mention some of them as follows:

Firstly:

When they determined to appoint U’thman as a caliph upon Muslims, He (peace be upon him) said:

(You have certainly known that I am most worthy with the Caliphate the others as a whole. By God! So long as the Muslims’ affairs remain intact and there is no oppression in it save on me I shall keep quiet seeking reward for it "from Allah" and keeping aloof from its attractions and allurements for which you aspire). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.272.

Secondly:

He (peace be upon him) said through his Ash-Shaqushaquiyeh sermon:

(If people had not come to me and supporters had not exhausted the argument and if there had been no pledge of Allah with the learned to the effect that they should not acquiesce in the gluttony of oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed I would have cast the rope of Caliphate on its own shoulders, and I would have given the last one the same treatment as to the first one. Then you would have seen that in my view this world of yours is no better than the sneezing of a goat). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.54.

A thing which invited him to abstain from fighting and violate against them are several factors:

Firstly:

He (peace be upon him) didn’t find enough number of Muslims to revolt by the way of weapon, although he had bravery which enables him to stand alone, whereas; an objectivity here is for the supporter on this occasion.

The matter is not a matter of revenge, rather; it is a leadership by which purposed the people policy, and their matters administrating, and in case that nation departed from its ruler, and didn’t stand by him, and didn't support him against his foe, then the argument is removed away from him, and it is an obligation upon him to isolate oneself and sit aside.

Secondly:

He (peace be upon him) viewed at the future of Islam, and perceived that the Islamic community is a beginner concerned to its religion, and that, the inner struggle will come on Islam from its roots, then; no an influence of religion will remain, therefore; he resorted to the peace, and he renounced his right to be a prince or a Caliph.

Thirdly:

Neither he has a personal desire for the leadership, nor he aspires to win by it, and in case he tried for it, rather; he (peace be upon him) tried for it to win by the equity principals establishment, and to settle the rules of religion, to command by good and to forbid evil, and this is a task and goals of Prophets and their successors.

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Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Ring Almsgiving

It was mentioned about As-Sidooqu in Al-Burhaan and Ghayatil-Maraam book, that: a group of Jewish embraced Islam, from them: Abdullah bin Salaam, Asad, T'alheh, bin Yameen, and bin Soya, so; they came on the Prophet (S.) and addressed him as follows: O, Prophet of God! Muses entrusted to Jusha' bin Noon, who is your trustee O Messenger of God? And who will be our authoritative after you? Then this verse was brought down:

(Surely your patron is only Allah and His Messenger, and the ones who have believed, who keep up the prayer and bring the Zakat, and are bowing down "to Allah"). Please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-Ma'ideh chapter, verse no. 55.

The Messenger of God (S.) commanded as follows:

Stand up. Thus; they stood up and came to the Mosque, soon; an asker who emerged, the Messenger of God (S.) said: O asker! Would any one present you something? He replayed Him: yes; this finger ring. He said: who did give you it? He replayed Him: that man who is praying gave it to me; He said: what a state did you find him in, when he gave it to you? He replayed Him: He was in a state of bowing. Thus; the Prophet (S.) said: Allah is greater, and then the Mosque inhabitants repeatedly said: Allah is greater.

Then; the Prophet (S.) said: Ali is your authority after me. They said: We satisfied that Allah is our Lord, Muhammad is our Prophet, and Ali bin Abi Talib is our authority. Soon Allah (the Sublime) brought down the verse as follows:

(Whoever appointed Allah and His Messenger and those who believed as his authority, then; Allah's party followers are the winners).

The narratives of the scholars agreed on that: the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) already gave his ring as alms while he was bowing, therefore; none objection is found among the nation's members in this concern. Thus; Allah thanked him for this action, and brought down this verse in his right. So that He (the almighty) obliges on the nation to submit with it, because of the narratives agreement to the Book of Allah, we also found that the Book of Allah agreed to it, while an evidence is established in this concern. Then; following it was an obligation, which don't exceed to the corruption and violation inhabitants.

Hassan bin Thabit composed poems on this occasion, thus we explain its meaning as follows:

May my soul and heart and every lazy and hurrying be sacrificed in behalf of your life O Aba Hassan.

Would my eulogy in concern to the lovers be vanished, whereas, the laudation in Allah's essence would never be vanished.

You; who gave while bowing, may the souls of people be sacrificed at you, oh who is the best bowing man.

O you who is the best chief, who is the best buyer and best seller of your fortunate ring.

Therefore; Allah (the Sublime) brought down the best reign in your right, and demonstrated it in His law dexterous laws.

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A Jewish man embraced Islam by the hand of Imam Ali (peace be upon him)

One day; U'mar emerged through the period of his Caliphate to the Mosqu, then; a man came on him, and addressed him as follows:

O prince of believers, I am a jewish man, and I am their scholar, so; I intended to ask you about matters, in case you told me about them, I would embrace Islam.

U'mar said: What are they?

The Jewish said: Three and three and one, in case you agree, I shall ask you, and in case other one than you who is more knowing than you, please lead me to him.

U'mar said: Go to that youg one -(he meant by him Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him)-.

Thus; he came to Ali (peace be upon him) and asked him, so; Ali (peace be upon him) said: Why did you say three and three and one, would you say seven?

The Jewish said: Then; I am an ignorant, in case you didn't answer me on the three parts I would safice.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) asked him: In case I answered you, would embrace Islam?

The Jewish said: Ok.

He (peace be upon him) said: then; you ask.

The Jewish said: I ask you about the first stone was put on surface of the earth, the first well sprung from the earth, and the first tree is grewup on the earth?

Ali (peace be upon him) said: O Jewish, you claim that: The first stone was put on the surface of the earth, is the stone which was put in the sacred House (Quds), then you told lie, rather; it is the (Black Stone) was brough5t down with Adam (peace be upon him) from the Paradise.

Jewish said: By God, you truly truthfully said, it is truly by the scripture of Arun, and Muses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

The prince of believers (peace be upon him) said: As for the spring, you surely say: the first well sprung on the earth surface is: the well which is in the Holy House (Baiytil-Maqudis), while, you told lie, it is the well from which Al-Khidhr (peace be upon him) irrigated, and no one drinks from it unless he becomes survival.

The Jewish said: By God, you said truthfully, it is written by the scripture of 'Arun, and the dictation of Muses (peace be upon them).

Ali (peace be upon him) said: As for the tree, you surely say: The first tree was planted, the olive tree; rather; it is 'Ajwah –a kind of dates- which 'Adam (peace be upon him) brought down from the Paradise.

The Jewish said: By God, you said truthfully, it is written by 'Arun's scripture, and Muses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

Then he said: as for the other three questions, Howmany Imam of guidance is there in this nation, that whoever disappoints them, he never hurts them?

Imam (peace be upon him) said: twelve Imams.

The Jewish said: By God, you said truthfully, it is written by the scripture of 'Arun, and Muses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

He asked: And, where you prophet settles in the Paradise?

Imam (peace be upon him) said: in the heighest class, and most honorable place, in 'Adin Gardens.

He commented: By God, you surely truthfully said, it is truly written by 'Arun's scripture, and Moses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

He asked: Who will settle with him at his position?

He (peace be upon him) said: Twelve Imams.

He commented: By God, you truly truthfully said, it is written by 'Arun's scripture, and Muses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

He said: the seventh question remained, How long his trustee will live after him?

Imam (peace be upon him) said: Thirty years.

Then he said: will he die of he will be killed?

He (peace be upon him) said: He will be beaten on the top of his head, so his beard will be colored by his blood.

The Jewish said: By God, you said truthfully, it is written by 'Arun scripture, and Muses' (peace be upon them) dictation.

Then; the Jewish embraced Islam, and became faithful.

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Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Bravery

Ibn Abil-Hadeed commented about His (peace be upon him) bravery as follows:

As for his (peace be upon him) bravery, he truly made the community forgets to remember those who anteceded him, and wiped off the names of whoever comes after him, and his positions in the war is celebrated, and the proverbs are quoted, and will be quoted by him to the Day of Judgment, and he (peace be upon him) the courageous, who never escaped, nor he afraid because of fear from the battalions, nor he fought against any one save he killed him, nor he beat a beat yet and needed to the other.

And when he invited Mu'awiyah for the fight against him alone, so that people can get rest from the battle by killing one of them, thus U'mar bin Al-'As told him: He is already just with you, Mu'awiyah said: You never cheated me since you advised me save today, would you command me by fighting against Abil-Hassan, while you know that he is the valiant hammer, I see that you wished to be a governor over Sham after me.

Arabs used to be proud by their stand against him in the battle, and as for the slain ones, whom he killed, then their families' pomposity is more visible, and more than that He is the killer of them, whereas; sister of U'mro bin 'Abd Wid said while she composed poems to elegize him, thus we indicate their meaning as follows:

If only the killer of U'mro was not save his killer, I would mourn for him yet as long as I was survival.

But his killer hasn't parallel, who was named Abu Baidhatil-Balad.

The kings of Greek and Europeans used to hung his (peace be upon him) photos in which he was carrying his Saber on the walls of their houses of warship, and the same thing as fore the kings of Turk and Dailam, they used to put his (peace be upon them) photos on their swords, as if they see a good omen of triumph by him in the war.

It is impossible to describe the bravery more than that he neither shrunk from a fencer, nor he fenced any one unless that he killed him, nor he escaped yet, nor he beat a beat, so that; he needed for other one, and when he was inquired; With what did you overpower your adversaries? He answered:

(Whenever I confronted a person, he helped me against himself). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.714, selection of his short sayings. No.318.

Then it was said to him: O prince of believers! Would you prepare an hour for the purpose of attack and retreat at the battle?

He (peace be upon him) replayed: (As for me; I never retreat, and whoever escapes from me I will never chase him).

It is sufficient for the people to know about his bravery when he stated in the Prophet's (S.) bed on night of attack, so; he subjected himself for the dangers, but; he didn't fear or was sad, thus; he sacrificed made his life sacrificed in behalf of the prophet's (S.) safe, as well as he sacrificed his heart in behalf of the prophet's (S.) life.

And he accompanied the Fawatim openly, when he emerged out of Mecca went to Al-Medina in order to join to the prophet's (S.) caravan, then the eight chivalries used to chase him, when they knew about his emergency, while they were furious upon him, they determined to kill him in case that he didn't returned back forcibly, so that, they should be of the courageous people of Mecca inhabitants, and it's protagonists, since; whomever is appointed for this task should never be of the cowardly people, who are amounting their horses, while he is standing on his two feet, and they were eight, while he was alone, and no one accompanied him save 'Ayman, U'mmu 'Ayman, and 'Abu Waquid Al-Layithi, who didn't suffice any thing in behalf of him.

Whereas, the terror over came 'Aba Waquid, when he looked at the cavalries, but he kept calm, and it is not transmitted about – 'Ayman and 'Aba Waquid- that they assisted him in any thing, rather; their fortune was the fortune of who is standing and watching.

And the prince of believers (peace be upon him) was in need for an assistor, although the eight horsemen were of high level of courage, but no one of them, who is the son of twenty or little passed it could escape from his hand, whatsoever; he was courageous, so that, they could surround him from all sides and kill him, even if it is fulfilled by the way of stone striking, and in case he attacked those, who are in front of him, then those who are behind him attacked him, or if he attacked those who are behind him, those who are in front of him attacked him, then he will never get rid of them, so it becomes easy for them to kill, or arrest him.

And that which is issued from him in Badr Combat because of which, basics of religion are established, and Allah humiliated the arbitraries of infidels, and the heads of them are killed, and the awe of Muslims effected the hearts of 'Arabs and Jews and others than them, he already was the pole of this combat's events, and the lion of its war, he fenced against Al-Waleed bin U'tba at the beginning of the war flare up, he killed him promptly.

And he shared his uncle Hamzah in U'tba killing, and he shared Hamzah and U'baidah in Shaibah killing, which they put to death.

Therefore; killing these three men was the first delicacy entered the infidels and effected them, and by that the signs of Muslims' triumph demonstrably appeared.

Then, Handhala bin 'Abi Sufian emerged for him, so he killed him, then; T'aimah bin U'dai after emerged for him, so he killed him, and he killed Nawfal bin Khwailid after him, who was one of Quraish's Devils, then; he was still killing them one by one, even he came to the side of their murders, so they were seventy murder, and that took place by Allah (the Sublime) assistance, and his guarantee, and supportness, then the conquer achieved by his hand.

Al-Mufeed (may Allah's mercy be upon him) commented that:

And in Al-'Azaab combat on the day of (Al-Khandaqu), Allah the Sublime brought down:

(As they came against you from above you and from below you, and as beholding swerved and hearts reached to the larynxes; and you surmised vain surmises about Allah. Therefore; were the believers tried, and were quaked with a sever earthquake, and as the hypocrites, and the ones in whose hearts is sickness said, "In no way did Allah and His Messenger promise us anything except dilution", and as a section of them said, "O population of Yathrib, there is no stationing (here) for you, so return!" and a group of them were asking permission of the Prophet, saying, "Surely our houses are privacies"; and they were in no way privacies decidedly they would like (to seek) nothing privacies flight. And if (the city) had been entered upon them from its (adjacent) regions, and thereafter they had been asked sedition, indeed they would have brought it forth and in no way would they have kept lingering in it except a little while. And indeed they had already covenanted with Allah a foretime that they would not turn their backs; and a covenant with Allah shall be questioned of. Say, "Fight will never profit you, in case you flee from death or killing; and lo, you will not be given enjoyment except for a little (time). Say, "Who is he that shall safeguard you from Allah in case He wills you ill or He wills mercy for you?" and they shall find for themselves, apart from Allah, neither patron nor a ready vindicator. Allah already knows the hinderers and the ones who say to their brethren, "Come along to us," and they (themselves) do not come up to battle, except a little. Indeed you have already had a fair example in the Messenger of Allah for whosoever hopes for Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much. And as soon as the believers saw the (Allied) parties they said. "This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us, and Allah and His Messenger have spoken sincerely". And in no way did it increase them except in belief and submission. Among the believers are men who are sincere to what they covenanted with Allah. So, of them are (they) who have accomplished their life time, and of them are (they) who are still waiting, and in no way have they exchanged the least exchanges, that Allah may recompense the sincere ones for their sincerity, and torment the hypocrites, in case He (so) decides, or relent towards them. Surely Allah has been Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful. And Allah reverted (the ones) who disbelieved in their rage; they attained no charity, and Allah was a sufficient (protector) to the believers from fighting. And Allah has been Ever-Powerful, Ever-Mighty). Please refer to the Holy Qur'an Al-Ahzab Chapter, verse no. 9-25.

He added: So; the admonition, scolding, and chiding are renounced to them, while no one rescued from that unanimously, save the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), rather; the conquest was his own and by his hand, and U'mro bin Abd Wid, Nawfal bin Abd Allah's killing happening was by his hand, and he was the causer of the infidels' defeat.

The Messenger of God said on the occasion of this group killing by Imam Ali (peace be upon him): (Now we can invade them, while; they can't invade us).

Josef bin Kulaib already narrated about Sufyan bin Zaid from Qurreh and others from 'Abdillah bin Mas'ud that he (S.) used to read as follows: (And Allah sufficed (protected) the believers from fighting by the assistance of Ali).

And his combat against (Marhab) on the day of Khaibar and killing him, and the fort conquest, and the gate spreading out. And other than these events of invasions and combats through the role of the prophet (S.) and after him.

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Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) bravery in Badr combat

When the Messenger of God (S.) stationed in Medina, he began to lay out militarily to attack the funds, on which Quraish used to depend an immediate adoption in its commercial, for this aim fulfillment, the Messenger of God (S.) emerged accompanied three hundred and thirteen men of his companions to overcome the commercial caravan which Abu Sufyan was over it.

Abu Sufyan knew about Muslims' project, so; he altered his way, and sent to Mecca asks for the assist from Quraish, thus; Quraish came with its rancor and haughtiness accompanied thousand fighters, and they determined to attack the prophet's (S.) army and his followers near a well of water was called (Badr well), on a distance of 160 km from Medina Munawareh.

The Messenger of God (S.) paid the Banner to the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), and the banner of Migrants to Mas'ab bin U'mair, and the banner of Al-Khizrij to Habbab bin Al-Munthir, and the banner of Al-A'ws to Sa'd bin M'ath and he declared that: O God; in case that You annihilate this group You will never be served on the earth.

Thus; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) emerged against Al-Waleed bin Shaibeh, so he beat him on his right hand, therefore; it was cut, then Al-Waleed took his right hand by his left hand and beat the head of Ali by it, Ali (peace be upon him) said: I assumed that the heaven dropped over the earth, then he (peace be upon him) beat him other beat, so he killed him, then Handhaleh bin Abi Sufyan emerged against him, so, he (peace be upon him) beat him, then his two eyes melt, and dropped on the earth, then Al-'As bin Sa'eed came, and Ali (peace be upon him) attacked him, and killed him, so; the Messenger of God (S.) asked: who of you knew about nawfal bin Khuwilid, Ali (peace be upon him) replayed him (S.): I killed him, thus; the Messenger of God (S.) said: Allah is greater; praise be to Allah, who responded to my invocation.

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Preferring Imam Ali (peace be upon him) upon the people save the others

We can give evidences in concern to the Messenger's of God (S.) preferring Imam Ali (peace be upon him) upon the others as follows:

The first evidence:

The verse of Ordeal (ÇáãÈÇåáÉ):

When the Messenger of God (S.) invited the Christians of Najran for the ordeal, to demonstrate his right to proof his prophecy reality, and to proof about their obduracy and violation against him after he demonstrated the evidence for them, he considered Ali in his own rank, and determined that he is equal to him, and he decided that he is himself, while he didn't lessen from his degree of merit, rather he equalized between him and Ali.

He (S) told about his the sublime Lord, as follows:

(So, whosoever argues with you concerning him, even after (such) knowledge as has come to you, then say, "Come! We should call our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and our selves and yourselves, thereafter; we should imprecate, (and) so lay. The curse of Allah on the liars.) Please refer to the Holy Qur'an 'Al-Imran chapter verse 61.

Therefore; he (S.) invited Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) for the ordeal purpose, so they were his sons according the literal meaning, and he (S.) invited Fatima (peace be upon her) about whom was mentioned as (our women), and invited the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) who is considered as the prophet himself (S.).

And if it was impossible for the man himself to supplicate for himself or for other than himself, then no remains save He (S.) surely sought by the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) to declare about the soul and meant the resemblances, and parallel, and that who is authorized with the honor and superiority, cordiality and infallibility, the unselfishness,

Veneration and glorification related to him.

And if only an evidence showed from outward that the prophet (S) is better than the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), so; this view should judge by the equity between them concerned to the merit and rank, but the evidence issued this result and remained that who is save him according to it.

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The second evidence:

The loyalty to wards Him (peace be upon him):

The Messenger of God (S.) considered the loyalty to Ali (peace be upon him) is the same as the loyalty to Him (S.) and vice versa.

From this, we understand that He (S.) considered the loyalist's judgment of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) is like the loyalist's judgment of his (S.) own, and the foe's judgment of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) is the same as the foe's judgment of His (s.) own, rather; he never made a separation between them anyhow, and the way related to detesting and cordiality to wards him (peace be upon him).

We already knew that He (S.) didn't lay down this judgment for the purpose of friendship, rather; he laid it down according to the worthiness and the just necessity related to the judicature.

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The third evidence:

The roasted bird narrative:

Which is the transmitted narrative by the way of two groups about the Messenger of God (S.), who said?

(O God bring me the most interested one to You to share me in this bird having).

Soon; Ali came, and when the Messenger of God (S.) looked at him, He said: (and to me) he meant that: -the most honey from the among beings to (the Sublime) Allah and to him (S.)-.

We already knew that Allah's interesting towards his beings infers the rewards of his own towards them, glorifying them, honoring and regarding them.

In case that; it is proved that the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) is the most honey from among the beings towards the (Sublime Allah), then it became clear that, he is with greatest reward at Allah consideration and most honorable at Him, and that will never be achieved save when he is with most perfected endeavor, and he is with most satisfied action, and most honored in the worshippers' levels.

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The Fourth Evidence: His (peace be upon him) authority on the Day of Judgment:

It is transmitted about the Prophet (S.) who declared that: The prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) will follow Him towards the basin on the Day of Judgment, while he is carrying the banner of praise seeking the paradise.

And that he (peace be upon him) is the separator between the Hell and Paradise, and that shall rise with him upon the steps of platform, which is set up for him for the meeting on the Day of Judgment.

And the individual shall never pass through the straight path on the Day of Judgment save whoever was manumitted from the Hell by the intercession of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), and his progeny the pious Imams (peace be upon them) shall be the owners of high authority (Al-'Araaf) on that Day.

It is fixed that the Day of Judgment is the point of punishment and reward, and the arrangement of esteem on the Day of Judgment will be according to the actions, the stations of humiliation on the Day of Judgment will be according to the actions entitlement.

* * * * * *

 

The Fifth Evidence:

The tales are transmitted by the way of Shi'a related to their priority:

These tales are successively narrated, and then we indicate from them as follows:

1-     The saying of Imam As-Sadiqu (peace be upon him):

(By God! If only Allah would never create Ali bin Abi Talib, there is no an equal man to Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of God  from among the beings, from Adam to the lowest of Him).

2-     His (peace be upon him) saying:

  (Josef the son of Jacob was a prophet the son of prophet the son of prophet the son of intimate friend (our chief Abraham the prophet), and he was the Veracious messenger, and by God! my father the prince of believers Ali bin Abi Talib was most preferred upon him).

3-     His saying, when he already was asked about the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him): How was his authority in comparison with the Prophet (S.)?

He (peace be upon him) replayed them as follows:

(No a preference is between them save the mission which he brought forth).

4-     The saying of the infallible Imams(peace be upon them) as a whole by the way of celebrated narratives, for instance their saying:

(If no the Messenger of God and Ali bin Abi Talib, then Allah would never create Heaven nor an earth, and no paradise no hell).

From this we derived their merit, and that beings' interests dependence on their familiarity, obedience, glorification and the aggrandizement towards them (peace be upon them).

* * * * * *

 

The Sixth Evidence:

The tales by the way of the Prophetic traditions about their priority concerning:

1-      The Sunnites transmitted by the way of Jabir bin Abdillah Al-Ansaari and Abi Sa'eed Al-Khidriy (may God be merciful with them) about the Prophet (S.), who said as follows: (Ali is the best among mans).

2-      It was narrated about A'isheh, who said that in the anti-Shi'a right, when the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) got over them and killed them:

(They are the all malicious people of mans and creatures, whom killed by the best of mans and creatures).

3-      It is narrated by the way of Jabir bin Abdillah Al-Ansaari, that the Prophet (S.) said:

(Ali is the chief of human beings, no one suspects in him save unbeliever).

And many other tales are transmitted by the way of the Sunnites.

 * * * * * *

 

The Seventh Evidence: His (peace be upon him) Sacrifice in behalf of Islam:

In case that Islam is the best of religions since it is most common advantageous for the servants than any other religion, the endeavor in its rules supporting will be the most preferable action.

Therefore; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was the supporter and the assistor of the Prophet (S.) which obliged his dignity and preference upon all those from the anteceded and the late people who missed the opportunity.

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Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) particularities

 

For the necessity; we should do in front of what he had of rights upon Islam and Muslims commonly, thus we say: He truly has characteristics that no one shared him in from people, they are as follows:

1-His birth place is at the inside of Ka'ba.

2-the Holy Prophet (S.) bringing him up since his early childhood.

3-His antecedence related to Islam embrace save the others.

4-the prophet's (S.) fraternizing with him save the reminder of other companions.

5-Carrying him upon the shoulders of the Prophet (S.) for the purpose of the idols break, which are out over the roof of K'aba.

6-The Prophet's (S.) issue continuance by the way of his backbone.

7-The Prophet's spit at his eyes on the day of Khaibar, and his invocation for him for the purpose of he will never be effected by heat or coolness.

8-Sencerity to wards him is of belief, and abominating him is of hypocrisy.

9-The Prophet's ordeal against Najran Christians with him, his spouse, and sons save the others from his relatives and companions.

10- Al-Bar'ah chapter propagating in behalf of the prophet (S.).

11- Appointing him for the reign by the way of the Prophet (S.) on the day of Al-Ghadeer.

12- He who said: Ask me before you lose me.

13- The Prophet (S.) particularized him save the others for the purpose of washing, shrouding, and praying on him.

14- The authoritative of religions' inhabitants and other than them as a whole assume him as a greatest man that the history knew.

15- Presenting the alms for the purpose of his Lord's obedience, while confer with the Messenger of God (S.) privately (O you who have believed, when you confer privately with the Messenger, then before your private conference with him forward a donation) please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-Mujadala Chapter, verse no.12. Then; no one acted according to it save him (peace be upon him), even Allah (the Sublime) omitted it, and dispraised those who lingered from it.

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Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) sincerity

From the anecdotes are transmitted about his (peace be upon him) sincerity concerning, one day he beame hungry, so; he said: O Fatima! Would you have any thing we can eat?

She replayed him: Nothing.

Imam (peace be uponhim) emerged from Fatima, while he was with his Lord confident, thus he asked for loan of one dinar, and when the dinar was at his hand intended to buy a thing which fulfills their need, he looked at Miqudad, who was disturbed.

He (peace be upon him) addressed him: O Miqudad! What caused you disturbed in this hour of your life?

Miqudad said: O Abal-Hassan! Nothing that caused me disturbed save the fatigue of my packsaddle, while, I left my family back, and they were suffering from hunger.

Imam (peace be upon him) said: take this dinar, and buy food for your family.

Then, Imam (peace be upon him) came to the Mosqu behind the prophet (S.), and after the prayer completion, the prophet (S.) turned towards Ali (peace be upon him) and addressed him: O Abal-Hassan, would have something to eat this night with you?

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) dangled his head shamefully from the Messenger of God (S.), and when the Messenger of God (S.) observed to his scilence, he commented that: O Abal-Hassan! Why don't you say: No, so that we will go to our purpose, or you say: yes, so that we will accompany you to your home.

Imam (peace be upon him) replayed: here altogather we are going my home.

Then; they altogather hurried his home, and came to Fatima (peace be upon her), while she was at he niche, and an earthen bowel was boiling and steam emerges out of it.

The Prophet (S.) said: O daughter, I came to you to share you having supper at this night.

Fatima (peace be upon her) held the bowel, and put it infront of the prophet (S.), and the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him).

The prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) said: O Fatima! From where did you bring this food?

The prophet (S.) replayed him: O Ali, this is in stead of your dinar.

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Compelling on pledging allegiance to Abi Bakr

They arrested Ali (peace be upon him) after they attacked his home and came on him, they pressed Az-Zahr'a (peace be upon her) between the door and the wall, so they broke a Costa of her chest, and her embryo aborted from her womb.

Salmaan the companion of the Messenger of God (S.) commented as follows:

...Ali (peace be upon him) is brought forth Abi Bakr, while he comes on Abi Bakr, he is (caught from his garment, the part which surrounds his neck) they pulled him pulling, so; he (peace be upon him) used to say as follows: By God! If only my saber is in my hand, then you will know that you can never reach to this state of mine, but by God! I don't blame my self in concern to an endeavor, if only I am on forty men, I will separate your group, therefore; may Allah curse people, who pledge allegiance to me, then they denied it.

Then, U'mar bin Al-Khttab rebuked him!! And ordered him as follows: pledge allegiance.

Ali (peace be upon him) replayed him as follows: If I don't pledge allegiance, then; what will happen?

U'mar said as follows: Then; we will kill you lowly, and humbly.

Ali (peace be upon me) replayed him as follows: Thus; you are killing a servant of Allah, and a brother of the Messenger of God (S.).

Abi Bakr commented as follows: As for you are a servant of Allah, it is really true, and as for your brotherhood concerned to the Messenger of God (S.), we don't satisfy your claim.

He (peace be upon him) replayed him as follows: Would you deny that the Messenger of God (S.) fraternized himself with me? They replayed him three times: ok, it is true.

Then, Ali (peace be upon him) turned towards them, and started them as follows:

O crowds of Migrants, and supporters, I ask you by God, wouldn't you hear to the Messenger of God (S.), while he delivered on the day of Ghadeer Khum: Whomsoever I was his chief, then Ali is his chief, O God! Be friend to whom, who stood by him, and be enemy to whomsoever antagonized him. And in Tabook invasion concerning He (S.) said: O Ali! Wouldn't you satisfy that you are in the step of Arun concerned to Musa, save no a prophet will be after me?

He added: then; Ali (peace be upon him) didn't leave any thing that the Messenger of God (S.) said in his right, unless he delivered openly on the hearings of people entirely. So, they replayed him: Oh! By God it is true.

Thus; Abi Bakr apprehended that they approached to leave supporting and preventing him, so he started them, and said as follows: All that you mentioned; our hearings heard, and our minds apprehended, but; I heard from the messenger of God (S.), who then said as follows: We are Ahlil-Bayit (the progeny of Muhammad) Allah (the Sublime) choose the hereafter life for us upon the present life, and Allah would never gather the prophethood and Caliphate for us we Ahlil-Bayit.

Ali (peace be upon him) replayed him as follows: Would any one of the Messenger's of God (S.) companions heard that from him save you?

U'mar said: the Calipha of the Messenger of God (S.) said truthfully, we already heard that from Him (S.) exactly in such way he mentioned!!

Abu U'baideh, Salim the servant of Abi Huthaifeh, and M'ath bin Jabal commented as follows: He said truthfully, and we already heard that from the Messenger of God (S.).

Ali (peace be upon him) replayed them: You already carried out your cursed sheet on which you agreed at the holy House, and that was as follows: In case that Allah caused Muhammad killed or caused him died, you would remove this order away from us, we Ahlil-Bayit.

Abi Bakr said as follows: How would you know about that? Would we inform you about it?

Ali (peace be upon him) said: O Zubair, O Salmaan, and O you Miqudad, I ask by God and by Islam! Would you hear to the Messenger of God, when he addressed me as follows: That so and so – even he mentioned these five persons- they wrote a covenant between them on which they contracted and agreed of what they said?!

They replayed as follows: Oh; yes it is true by God, we already heard that from him when he told you about it, then, you asked him: May my father and mother be sacrificed at you, O Prophet of Allah, what will you command me to behave in case that happened? He replayed you: In case you found assistants on them, you should struggle against them and declare war against them, and in case you didn't find assistants against them, you should pledge allegiance to them, have patience, and save your blood.

Ali (peace be upon him) said as follows: By God! If only those forty men, who pledged allegiance to me, responded to me, I would struggle against you thoroughly in the way of Allah, then; by God! No one of your issues would attain it to the Day of Resurrection.

Then, He (peace be upon him) pointed to the grave of the Messenger of God (S.) and called: "O the son of my father; the people deemed me weak and approached to kill me, then; you don't let the foes gloat over my grief"

Thus; they extended his hand while he used to constringe it, even they put it on the hand of Abi Bakr, and said: pledge allegiance, pledge allegiance, then; it was announced in the Mosque that: Pledged allegiance, Abul-Hassan pledge allegiance!!!

I commented that: Would this be a pledging allegiance?!! According to what thing he pledged allegiance?? And by what terms he uttered when he pledged allegiance??

Then it was said to Az-Zubair: pledge allegiance now, so; he refused to response them, then U'mar, Khalid bin Al-Waleed, and Al-Mugheereh bin Shu'beh attacked him with a group of people, so they took his saber from his hand, and beat it on the earth even it is broken. Az-Zubair said – while U'mar was sitting on his chest: O the son of Sahhak –Sahhak is an absina bondmaid- By God if only my saber was in my hand, then, you would go aside from me, so; he pledged allegiance.

Selman added: Then; they brought me forth and trod on my neck by their feet and kinked my hands, so I pledged allegiance forcibly, then Abu Thar, and Al-Miqudad pledged allegiance forcibly also, whereas, no one of the nation pledged allegiance forcibly save these four men and Ali (peace be upon him).

 * * * * * *

 

Ali's (peace be upon him) lover is the lover of the Sublime Allah, and the lover of His Messenger (S.)

Ali (peace be upon him) was the most honest one of believers after the Messenger of God (S.), his heart inhabited perfectly by belief, while had no lack even a weight of the light of perfectible belief, thus; his (peace be upon him) heart is a source of belief.

Rather; no a weight of self inclination is found in his heart, he is surely the straight path, and the path that leads to wards Allah, the scale of actions, he adhered to the right and the right adhered to him, rather; the fixed attributes of Allah (the sublime) demonstrated in him (peace be upon him), he is surely:

The divinely justice, the blessings of Allah (the Sublime), and His power, the symbol of mercy, the sympathy, the divinely patience, and a manifestation of their original manifestations.

Ali is the Messenger of God (S.) himself, the storekeeper of his knowledge, his brother, his successor, and trustee, and every one who liked him and became loyal to him, he surely liked Allah and his Messenger and those who believed and he became loyal to wards them, and whoever detested him and violated him, he already detested Allah, his Messenger, and the believers, therefore; the lover of Ali is the lover of Allah and his Messenger, the hater of him is the hater of Allah and His Messenger.

Then; we draw the respectable readers' attention to some of tales are transmitted in this concern:

1- Al-Hanafi Al-Qundozi and Aj-Jwaini narrated about Abi Barzeh Al-'Aslami, who said that, the Messenger of God (S.) said in concern to Ali (peace be upon him) as follows:

(Allah the Sublime entrusted to me a testament concerned to Ali, that Ali is the banner of guidance, and the leader of my companions, the light of whoever obeyed me, and he is the term I have adhered it to the pious ones, whoever liked him, he already liked me, and whoever detested him, he already detested me, then; you give him good omen in this concerning), thus; Ali (peace be upon him) came on me and I gave him good omen about this accident, so; he said: (O Messenger of God, I am surely a servant of Allah, in case that He tutors me, so it is by my sin commission, and in case that which He (the Sublime) gave me good omen, He is worthier than me with my self), the Messenger of God (S.) said: (I said: O God, glorify his heart, and make it the spring of faith, Allah (the Sublime) said: I designated him with  the affliction, then, I said: O God, he is my brother and my successor, Allah (the Sublime) said: It is a precedent thing related to my decision, he is afflicted with my decree). Please refer to Yanabee' Al-Mawaddeh book, p.134, Fara'id As-Simtain book, vol.1, p.151, trad. No.114.

14- Aj-Juwayini also narrated about 'Alquama, from Abdil-Lah, who said as follows: The Messenger of God (S.) went out of the house of Zainab the daughter of Jahsh, and came to the house of U'mmu Salamah, while it was her day of the Messenger of God (S.), thus, Ali (peace be upon him) accidentally came, and knocked at the door softly, the prophet (S.) consented to it, but U'mmu Salamah denied it, the prophet (S.) commanded her by: raising up and opening the door for him, until he said: (She said: I raised up and opened the door, thus he took hold of the jambs of the door, till he heard neither a sound nor a movement, and I returned back to my boudoir, so; he asked for permission to come in, and he came in, then the Messenger of God (S.) said: (O U'mmu Salama, would know him?) I said: O Messenger of God, yes, this is Ali bin Abi Talib, he added: (Truthfully you said, he is a chief, I like him, his meet is of my meet, his blood is of my blood, he is the source of my knowledge, then; you must hear, and testify, he is the killer of the pledge breakers, the deviators from truth,  and those who have gone out of faith after me, thereafter; you should hear and witness, he is the fulfiller of my promises, you should hear and witness, by God! He is the reviver of my way, you should hear and witness that, if only a servant served Allah for thousand year and a thousand year and a thousand year, between the Corner and the mystical station (Maquam), then he met Allah (the Sublime), while he detested Ali bin Abi Talib, and my progeny, Allah (the Sublime) would droop him on his two nostrils in the Hell on the Day of Judgment). Please refer to Fara'id As-Simtain book, vol.1, p.331, trad. No.257.

3- Aj-Juwaini also narrated about Ibn Mas'ud, who said as follows:

The Messenger of God (S.) said in concern to as follows: (Whoever likes me, he should like Ali bin 'Abi Talib, and whoever detested Ali bin 'Abi Talib, he already detested me, and whoever detested me he already detested Allah, and whoever detested Allah, He already dropped him into the Hell). Please refer to the previous reference, vol.1, p.132, trad. No.94.

4- And from him also about 'Anas bin Malik, narrated as follows: The Messenger of God (S.) said to Ali:

(O Ali, whoever claimed that he likes me, while he detests you, he is truly a liar). Please refer to the previous reference, vol.1, p.134, trad. No.94.

5-Ibn Al-Mughazili Ash-Shafi'i narrated about Salman, who said as follows:

The Messenger of God (S.) said to Ali: (O Ali, the lover of you is the lover of me, and the detester of you is the detester of me). Please refer to Al-Manaquib book by Ibn Al-Maghazili, p.196, trad. No. 233.

6-From Ibn 'Abdil-Bir, who narrated about the Messenger of God (S.) his saying:

(Whoever liked Ali, he already liked me, whoever detested Ali, he already detested me, whoever bothered Ali, he already bothered me, and whoever bothered me he already bothered Allah). Please refer to Al-Isti'ab book, through Al-I'saba footnot, vol.3, p.37.

7- Ibn 'Asakir Ash-Shafi'i narrated about U'mmu Salamah, who said as follows:

I testify that I heard the Messenger of God (S.) said as follows: (Whoever like Ali he already liked me, and whoever liked me he already liked Allah, and whoever detested Ali he already detested me, and whoever detested me, he already detested Allah). Please refer to Imam Ali biography of Tareekh Damascus book, vol.2, p.190, trad. No.673.

And from him, it is carried about Jabir, who said as follows:

The Messenger of God (S.) came to us, while we were sitting at the Mosque, he took hold with Imam Ali (peace be upon him), and said as follows: (wouldn’t you claim that you like me?) they said: O Messenger of God, yes, He added as follows: (He told lie, whoever claimed that he likes me, and detests this). He pointed to Ali (peace be upon him). Please refer to the previous preference, vol.2, P.185, trad. No. 664.

14- From him also, about Salman Al-Farisi narrated as follows:

I looked at the Messenger of God (S.), while he struck on the thigh of Ali bin ‘Abi Talib, and on his chest, and I listened to him, while he said as follows:

(The lover of you is the lover of me, and the lover of me is the lover of Allah, the detester of you is the detester of me, and the detester of me is the detester of Allah). Please refer to the previous reference, vol.2, P. 187, trad. No.669.

10- From him also, about Ziyad Al-‘Asadi from his grandfather, who said as follows: I heard to Ali bin ‘Abi Talib (peace be upon him) said as follows:

(The Messenger of God “S.” said to me: You will live on the way of mine, and you will be killed on the way of mine, then; whoever liked you, he just liked me, and whoever detested you, he just detested me). Please refer to the previous reference, vol.2, P.188, trad. No. 670.

11- From him also, from U’mar bin Abdillah Ath-Thaquafi, from his father from his grandfather Ya’li bin Murrah Ath-Thaquafi, who commented that: I heard to the Messenger of God (S.) said: (Whoever obeyed Ali, he already obeyed me, and whoever disobeyed Ali, he already disobeyed me, and whoever disobeyed me, he disobeyed Allah, and whoever liked Ali, he already liked me, and whoever liked me, he already liked Allah, and whoever detested Ali, he already detested me, and whoever detested me, he already detested Allah, no one, who likes you save that who is a believer, and no one who detests you save who is a disbeliever, or hypocritical one). Please refer to the previous reference, vol.2, P.188, trad. No.671.

(Anecdote of Abdullah bin ‘Abbas by Sa’eed bin Jubaiyr):

(Al-Maliki ibn As-Sabbagh narrated about Muhammad bin Yousif Al-Kanji Ash-Shafi'i an anecdote of Abdullah bin ‘Abbas, Sa’eed bin Jubaiyr  used to raise, when he became blind, he passed through the bank of Zamzam, he met people of Sham inhabitants accidentally, they used to abuse Ali (peace be upon him), Abdullah bin ‘Abbas heard to them, he said to Sa’eed: please let me return back to them, he led him towards them, then; he stood in front of them, and addressed them as follows:

Who is the abuser of Allah among of you? they said: Glory to Him (Allah), no one of us, who abused Allah!!, he said: Who is the abuser of the Messenger of God (S.)? They replayed: Glory to Allah, no one of us, who abused the Messenger of God (S.)! he said: Who is the abuser of Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him)? The replayed: As for this, then something of this is happened, he replayed: I testify that the Messenger of God (S.) by what my two ears heard of, and my heart conceived, I heard to Him (S.), while he said to Ali bin ‘Abi Talib (peace be upon him) as follows: (O Ali, whoever abused you, he already abused me, and whoever abused me, he already abused (the Sublime) Allah, and whoever abused (the Sublime) Allah, He (Allah) would drop him on his face in he Hell), then, he left them, and said: O son, what did you find them behave?

He recited poem, then; we explain its meaning as follows:

They viewed at you by glowing eyes, the view of belly goat at the knives of the butcher.

 He said: increase me, may your father be sacrificed at your life, thus, I recited:

They looked at him with a scanty view, and their sights are ducked, the view of lowly one towards the victorious venerated one.

He added: please increase me, may your father be sacrificed at your life, then, I said: I haven’t any additional, he said: I have the additional:

Their survival ones are shame upon their dead ones, and the dead ones are abused for their ancient positions towards Islam. Please refer to Al-Fusool Al-Muhimma book, by Ibn Sabbagh Al-Maliki, p.127, the biography of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), by As-Sayid ‘Azghar Nadhim Zadeh Al-Qomi: P.169.

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Qualifications of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) concerned to taking upon the responsibility of Caliphate

The Messenger of God (S.) cared seriously of the situations of Muslims making habituated, and their destiny writing and making their life go on its way towards progression related to the political and social aspects.

He designed the way based on the empirical program, which never submits to the factories of emotion or external influences at any rate.

He (S.) appointed Imam Ali (peace be upon him) for it, for its spiritual leadership, and that because of what he (peace be upon him) enjoys with of unique capabilities, which are not available in any one of Muslims save him by the agreement of Muslims entirely.

The most important of them may be as follows:

Firstly: His awareness with judicature:

He (peace be upon him) already was the significant reference allover the Islamic world in this concern.

And the saying of U'mar concerned to Ali (peace be upon him) is successively celebrated (If Ali is not, U'mar will be vanished).

None of companions can compete with him concern to this talent, they already agreed on that he (peace be upon him) is the more educated person among Muslims after the Messenger of God (S.), and more knowing with the religion affairs and Legislation concerning, and he is most knowing with the political and administrative affairs from among them.

And his (peace be upon him) instructions to Malik Al-'Ashtar is a clear evidence related to this claim; these instructions included of political laws which no a political laws are contained in Islam before it.

It cared by the duties of government towards popular, and the government's responsibilities of political and social justice availability towards the citizens.

 He (peace be upon him) defined the powers of rulers and their responsibilities, and he mentioned the conditions of capabilities, they must be with complete expertness concerned to the affairs of acts are entrusted to them, then; they must be merciful with the employees of organs of state, the ruler must be distinguished with good conducts, belief, refrain from prohibited concerns in Islam, and other than these brilliant articles, that; these instructions contained, and are indispensable for nation; Government, and people.

As much as he (peace be upon him) was most familiarized with these affairs, he already was most familiarized with the sciences from among of people, for instance; the science of (scholastic) theology, and philosophy, and arithmetic etc...

And with these scientific capabilities which he enjoyed with, how it is possible for the Messenger of God (S.) to refrain from appointing him for the responsibility of Caliphate position, which is the center surrounded by the sovereign authority of nation and its security.

The eminence scientific powers, which Imam (peace be upon him) owned according to the rule of the Islamic logic that Islam necessitated, he must be the appointed one for this function save the others.

Allah (the Sublime) says:

(Say, "Are the ones who know equal to the ones who do not know?") Please refer the holy Qur'an, Az-Zumar chapter no.39, verse no.9.

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Secondly: the Bravery:

Imam Ali was most courageous one from among of people entirely, and he was with most enduring heart of them, and his rare bravery overwhelmed all the tongues allover the world, he (peace be upon him) said:

(By Allah, if Arabs join together to fight against me, I will not run away from them, and if I get opportunity, I will hasten to catch them by their necks) please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.396.

This religion already is established by the way of his (peace be upon him) sword, and it is instructed by the way of his struggle and endeavors, and he is the owner of the celebrated positions on the days of Badr, Hunain, and Al-Ahzaab.

He (peace be upon him) already cut the heads of infidels, wiped their roots, and spread the killing among them, then, no aperture is opened for Islam, unless that he plunged into it to extinguish its fire.

The Messenger of God (S.) presented him as a prince through the every occasion and meeting, and he ascribed leadership of his armies to him commonly.

He (peace be upon him) never plunged in a battle, unless Allah (the Sublime) granted a triumph by the way of his hand, he truly subjugated the Jews, and conquered Khaiybar forts, humiliated them, and extinguished their fire.

Bravery is one of the original factories on which the general leadership depends, in case the nation effected with deadlocks and relapses, and its leader had a weak will, with cowardly heart, powerless, then; no avoidable it will be influenced by catastrophes, and misfortunes, and the afflictions and disasters will chase them.

With the existence availability of this attribute in Imam Ali (peace be upon him) with its excellent meanings, then how it is possible for the Prophet (S.) to avoid nominating him for the Islamic Caliphate!

He (peace be upon him) because of his incomparable bravery accompanied with all the attributes of virtues, and high manners, he was appointed for the nation leadership, and its affairs administration, even in case no recommendation of the Prophet concerned to him.

* * * * * *

Thirdly: The self-abnegation:

The most important attribute which unavoidable to be available in whoever advances for the nation's leadership is the self-abnegation, and the nation advantage preference upon any other advantage, and not to benefit personally from the proceeds of the state and other than them of Muslims' properties.

This was the prime phenomena by which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was known through the period of his government, whereas, Muslims or other than them didn't know a ruler who treated contemptibly with his all advantages in the likeness of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), he never accumulate any thing for his own or for his family's own a thing of the state's properties, rather; he refrained from them strongly.

He (peace be upon him) strived with himself to go on among Muslims with conduct; its basis is the pure right and the immaculate equity.

* * * * * *

 

Fourthly: The Equity:

It is the most distinguished of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) particularities, therefore; his noble soul grew up with the Godliness, and avoiding the offenses towards Allah, he didn't prefer any thing in behalf of Allah obedience, he already avoids every disallowed thing in Islam strongly, and that Islamic law refused, who, he said as follows:

(By Allah, even if I am given all the domains of the seven (stars) with all that exists under the skies in order that I may disobey Allah to the extent of snatching one grain of barely from an ant I would not do it). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.210 sermon no.224.

Of his (peace be upon him) rare equity evidences is that, he avoided to response Abdir-Rahmaan bin Au'f to his request, when he insisted on him to pay him homage as Caliph upon Muslims on a condition, he should adhere to the policy of the two Shaikhs –'Abi Bakr and U'mar- so he (peace be upon him) refused save just going on his way according to the policy of the Messenger of God (S.).

If only he (peace be upon him) was of those who strive for the present life interests, and he was of the rule seekers, he should response him to his claim, but; he couldn't behave according to his (Abdir-Rahman's) view, then, he would never adhere to a thing, which he never confirmed, he didn't follow any way contains sinuosity, or deviation from Islam advantages, and its law.

The equity is available in Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) personality with its most abundant quotations, which is of the principal factors by which whoever takes upon the responsibility of rule, and be in charge of Muslim's affairs, he must be characterized with.

These are exactly the particularities of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), therefore; how it be available for the Messenger of God (S.) not to nominate him, or appoint him for the Caliphate responsibility!

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) Equitability

The equitability gem adhered to the personality of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him), and his holy name joined with the equitability, he already was impartial, who used to interest with equity, and take care with it.

Every caller by the equity from society or a company or a person, and hopes to establish a society according to the equity and justice, he puts Ali (peace be upon him) forth his eyes, and benefits from his style in the justice implementation as an ideal in his program which he endeavors to carry it out.

The history of humanity is really never familiarized with a personality in the likeness of Ali's (peace be upon him), whom his name is eternalized forever, and the form of his equity is printed in the minds of humanity, he already used to love equity, fond of it to the far extent.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is an eminence corroboration of the verse: (Be ever upright with equity "with others") please refer to the Holy Qur'an, An-Nisa' chapter, verse no.135.

Yes; this equity was the purpose of his own, and he was in the likeness of thirsty one who searches about a spring of water, which quenches his thirst, he strives for the source of pleasant justice.

The prince of believers (peace be upon him) would never be satisfied with refrain from the justice implementation, and retreat from it however the value was been, rather; he refused to pass over the justice of one step, even if it was for the purpose of fixing his new state of foundations, and he refused associating with or follow the political benefits however the value was great.

He also refused to sacrifice by the justice and to become at mercy, leniency, and agony effect, by that, he shall expose this holy foundation to the quake and collapse.

His (peace be upon him) equity was a remembrance by which the tongue of the particular and common people utters, the enemy and the friend, even his equity multitude was the reason of killing him (peace be upon him).

In case we expose to ideals of his (peace be upon him) equity, we need for wide volumes to mention them, rather; we comment that:

The equity according to his observation, which showed his entity, and absorbed existence, he (peace be upon him) already expressed about his opinion in this concern as follows:

(By the way of equity, honesty of beings is achieved), he already used to satisfy his hunger by a piece of arid bread, and have the salt for the purpose that his living standard to be of the weakest of people's ability, and he declared that: (Allah truly imposed upon the leaders of justice to equalize themselves to the weak of people, so that; poverty should never appear in the poor ones).

Therefore; in the likeness of this conduct is impossible to issue save from Ali (peace be upon him), he truly is a fruit of the Holy Messenger of God (S.) education, thus; equity of Ali (peace be upon him) is a fruit of Divine equity, and he strived to execute it.

Therefore; his (peace be upon him) equity became a clear proof for all leaders and the seekers of justice in the previous ages, and an honorific corroboration for the perfect human of Muslims, who can be an ideal through all fields.

 * * * * * *

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) agreed on taking upon the Reign (Caliphate)

The revolution against U'thman procured a great advantage for Muslims, it put an end to the capitalization, and the nation's benefits fraud, and it put an end to the social inequity and injustice, and it tore down the thrones of dictatorship, and it granted the most important thing which the nation used to yearn to of justice, welfare, and security.

The historians comment that: The revolutionaries and common armies gathered around the Imam (peace be upon him), while they began to hail with him, and announce that: No Imam over us save you.

The public quarters already knew certainly, that Imam (peace be upon him) is the individual who will ensure their hopes and goals for them, and he will return their dignity for them.

The community also knew that, they will enjoy their freedom, equity, and justice, so it insisted on appointing him (peace upon him) as a leader upon them, and authorized him with the Caliphate affairs.

* * * * * *

He (peace be upon him) refused appointing him for the Caliphate:

Imam (peace be upon him) met the revolutionaries speechlessly, and discontent with their Caliphate position, because of his knowing about the terrible events, which this Caliphate will face in case that he accepted it.

The expedient parties, which U'thman's government created are already vaccinated with treason, and are dressed with personal benefits and yearnings.

And, since; he (peace be upon him) knew antecedently, that they will stand against him, and act zealously for struggling against him, and hindering between him and his political plans, which purposed to materialize the equity, and put an end to the oppression.

Therefore; Imam (peace be upon him) exclaimed by the crowds of citizens, who crowded around him, announced about his complete rejection of their appointment related to the Caliphate position, as follows:

* * * * * *

(I have no need for your appointment, then; whomsoever; you appointed I satisfied)

What a need of Imam with their Caliphate position, he (peace be upon him) didn't seek a particular benefit of his own, or of his family (peace be upon them), rather; it is the necessity for the nation's goals fulfillment, and the Islamic life restoration to its original way.

But the community insisted on appointing him (peace be upon him) calling up: We shall never appoint save you.

Then, Imam (peace be upon him) didn't retract, rather; he insisted on the refuse and denial, but the revolutionaries didn't find one who is worthy with the nation' affairs running save the Imam (peace be upon him), with whom all the attributes of leadership, obstinacy to the right, and the capability of the principality taking upon are available in him, therefore; they remained on their opinion concerned to appointing him for the Caliphate position.

Imam (peace be upon him) replayed them:

(Leave me and seek some one else).

He informed them about the amazing events which he will face in case that he accepted their appointment concerned to the Caliphate position, as he said:

(O people, we are facing a matter which has (several) faces and colors, which neither hearts can stand nor intelligence can accept.) Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.360, sermon no. 92. The crowds didn't comprehend his saying, rather; they gathered upon him and called: O Prince of believers, O Prince of believers.

The host of people's insistence and their moving with urgency towards him, made him talk to them openly about the reality, so that; they might be on the fact of their affair, as follows:

(You should know that if I respond to you I would lead you as I know and would not care about whatever one may say or abuse. If you leave me then I am the same as you are. It is possible I would listen to and obey whomever you make in charge of your affairs.) Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.360, sermon no. 92

He (peace be upon him) declared for them, that in case he took upon their leadership, he will lead them according to the way of right and justice, he will never flatter any man, and he invited them to appoint other one than, but they insisted upon him and shouted: We shall never leave you save in case we appoint you as a Caliph.

The crowds gathered around him, and they came over him from everywhere, while they used to ask him to accept their appointment for the Caliphate position.

He (peace be upon him) described the insistence and overcrowd violence on him as follows:

(At that moment, nothing took me by surprise, but the crowd of people rushing to me, advanced towards me from every side like the man of hyena so much so that Hassan and Hussein were getting crushed and both the ends of my shoulders garment were torn. The collected around me like the herd of sheep and goats). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1 P.53, sermon, no.3

Then, he delayed them to the next morning in order to think about the affair carefully, so; they separated on this way.

The Imam (peace be upon him) agreement:

 Imam didn't find save the Caliphate acceptance for the fear of unbeliever from the U'maids, who perhaps leaps over them, as he (peace be upon him) talked about this affair as follows:

(By God! I never advanced to it, save because of fear from a he goat of Bani U'maiyah overrules the nation, so he uses to distort with the Book of the Sublime Allah)

Paying Homage:

People assembled at the great Mosque waiting for him (peace be upon him) impatiently, he perhaps responses them to what they sought.

Imam (peace be upon him) came, while the honest remainders of the Prophet's (S.) companions surrounded him, then; he (peace be upon him) was met with billows of proponent hurrahs for him, while they already exposed about their urgent desire of Imam's taking upon himself Muslims' responsibility.

Then; he (peace be upon him) amounted the woods of platform, and orated on their hearings as follows:

(Oh people, this command, any one has no right in it save that whom you appointed for it, we already separate yesterday, when I was detesting your command, thus; you refused unless I am upon you, but I haven't right to posses a dirham without your permission, and in case that you wanted I would leave it, otherwise, I would never take from behind of any one)

Imam (peace be upon him) highlighted his shiny financial policy, he was seriously cautious concerned to the state's properties, he didn't possess any thing of it, nor he spends a dirham on his particular benefits and affairs from it, by that he improves for those who weltered themselves with the properties of the central treasury through the days of the bygone role, when they sized the finances, and took them with no permission. Therefore; in case he took upon himself the responsibility of Muslims' affairs, they would be deprived from it, and they would be treated in the same way by which the others are treated, so; the wealth would return –according to Allah's will- to the community not to the ruler.

The exclamations aroused from everywhere in the Mosque, while they expressed about the perfect insistence on voting him, calling as one sound: We are on the way, we left you the day before.

Thus; the crowds shove one another in the likeness of the choppy waves for the purpose of paying homage to Imam (peace be upon him), who, then actually paid homage for Allah and His Messenger (S.), whereas, the Arabs of the territories, Badr inhabitants, the Migrants, and the Supporters commonly paid him homage.

Muslims became happy on this occasion, which fulfills their hopes, and avails what they want of honor and dignity, and the authorities of companions emerged and announced about their complete support and their perfect advocacy to wards Imam Ali's government at the witness of the communities of nation.

 * * * * * *

 

What Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his family suffered from because of Mu'awiyah

Mu'awiyah employed all the organs of his government for the purpose of lowering from Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) esteem, whom are the consignment of the Messenger of God (S.), and the sympathetic nerve in this nation.

He already employed the most serious tools to fight against them, and remove the people from the reality of the Islamic life, and from his tools are as follows:

* * * * * *

Firstly: The preachers' employment:

Mu'awiyah employed the preachers throughout the territories, to transfer the hurts aside from Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) loyalty, and to circulate the lies among people to degrade from their honesty and support the U'maids' role.

* * * * * *

Secondly: The educational institutions employment:

Mu'awiyah employed the educational institutions, and the classes of Mosques to bring the children up on Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them) abhorrence, and to create a generation, who antagonizes them.

These centers played a serious role in the hatred spirit spreading to wards the Prophet's (S.) progeny within the children's souls.

* * * * * *

 

Thirdly: Creating the deceivable tales:

Mu'awiya established a net to create the tales, which is considered most dangerous net from among all the destructive nets in Islam.

He entrusted to it by the traditions putting about the prophet's (S.) tongue for the purpose of degrade from Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) esteem.

As for the prominent employed persons in these destructive nets, whom Mu'awiyah employed are as follows:

1-     Ad-Doosi Abu Huraira.

2-     Samara bin Jundub.

3-     U'mro bin Al-'As.

4-     Al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba.

They already invented thousands of traditions about the Prophet's (S.) tongue.

And they were several various groups, and that was according to the political project of the state, they were as follows:

* * * * * *

 

The First Group:

Its function is to put the tales in the companions' dignity, and make them at the same level of Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) dignity and Imam Baquir (peace be upon him) reckoned more than hundred invented traditions, from these as follows:

1-           (That U'mar is talked), means that: the angles talk to him.

2-           The serenity appears on the utterance of U'mar.

3-           U'mar is truly dictated by an angle.

4-           The angles are shameful from U'thman.

 

They also put traditions in the right of companion's merits in the likeness of the prophetic traditions in the right of the merits of the purified progeny (peace be upon them), for example:

(The chiefs of the paradise elderly inhabitants' is truly Abu Bakr and U'mar).

Whereas; He (S.) said in concern to Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) as follows:

(Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are the two chiefs of youths of the Paradise inhabitants).

* * * * * *

 

The Second Group:

Its function is to put the tales, that dispraise the purified progeny (peace be upon them), and degrade from their dignity.

Mu'awiyah already donated to Samara bin Jundub four hundred thousand dirham to deliver them on Sham inhabitants and to inform them about the purpose of the holy descended verse in the right of Imam Ali (peace be upon him, which is the saying of (the Sublime), Allah as follows:

(And of mankind (there is) he whose saying upon the present life makes you admire (it), and calls on Allah to witness what is in his heart, (yet) he is most obstinate in hostility, and when he turns away, he (diligently) endeavors about the earth to corrupt in it, and cause the tillage and stock to perish; and Allah does not love corruption. Please refer to the holy Qur'an, Al-Baquara chapter, verse no.204-205.

Thus; Samara bin Jundub told them about this tale, and received this great donation from Muslims' treasury.

And from which that they narrated, the prophet (S.) said in the right of 'Al Abi Talib as follows:

('Al Abi Talib are truly not my trustee rather, Allah is truly my trustee, and the honest believers).

Al-'Amash narrated that: When Abu Hurairah came to Iraq accompanied with Mu'awiyah in Aj-Jama'h year (41 A.H.), he came to Al-Kufa Mosque, and when he looked at the multitudes of people to met him, he kneeled on his two knees, then he struck on his bald patch severally, and said:

(O Iraq inhabitants, would you claim that I tell lie to the Messenger of God (S.), and burn my self in the Hell?!! I already heard from the Messenger of God (S.) when he said as follows:

(Every prophet has a sacred place, and my sacred place is Medina from EAR to THOR Mountain, and whoever made an impurity at this place, then may Allah's, imprecation, and that of angles, and of people as a whole be upon him, and I swear by God! That Ali made an impurity at it).

When Mu'awiyah received his saying, he rewarded him and honored him, and then he charged him with Medina principality.

To many of likeness of these topics which slanders with the purified progeny (peace be upon them). They are the source of knowledge, and sensitivity in the Islamic world.

The Third Group:

Its function is to put the narratives in Mu'awiyah's dignity concerning, to eliminate the disgrace that related to him and related to his father and family because of struggling against Islam.

And to hide what was successively narrated about the prophet (S.) his sayings that disparage them and these are some of invented narratives:

1-He (S.) said:

(Mu'awiyah bin 'Abi Sufyan is the most mid one of my nation and most generous one).

2-He (S.) said:

(The keeper of my mystery is Mu'awiyah bin 'Abi Sufyan).

3-He (S.) said:

(O God, teach him – meant Mu'awiyah- the Book, keep him away from the torture, and drive him into the Paradise).

4- He (S.) said:

(In case that you looked at Mu'awiyah, while he was on my platform, you should accept him, since he is the trustee of this nation).

And so on to the likeness of these invented narratives, which shoe the intellectual struggle against Islam according to Mu'awiyah's belief, and he managed assiduously to wipe off this religion and to annihilate it.

Muslims are influenced by these matters are mentioned through the books of the authors of As-Sunna inhabitants a seriously, and many of Muslims considered them as true.

So; they added to Mu'awiyah the holiness, and joined him to the first group of precautious companions in their religion, while, no doubt in case they knew about its reality, they should deny this relation to him, as Al-Mada'ini said.

And the topics didn't restrict to dignify Mu'awiyah, and degrade from Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) dignity, rather; they interposed in the affairs of the Islamic rules, to which the contradictions and impossibilities are attributed, which caused the Islamic reality be twisted, and made Muslims' beliefs corruptly.

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) abusing:

Mu'awiyah went too far in his antagonism towards the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), he announced about abusing and cursing him openly through his particular and common assemblies, and he entrusted to all his employees and governors to circulate cursing him among the people.

Thus; cursing Imam Ali (peace be upon him) became valid through out the Islamic territories.

Mu'awiyah already delivered on the hearings of Ash-Sham inhabitants, as follows:

(O people, the messenger of God told me as follows: You will take upon the reign (Caliphate) after me, then, you must choose the Holy land – means Ash-Sham-, since; in it is truly the offsets, and I appointed you, thus; you curse Aba Turab).

Then, Ash-Sham inhabitants clamored entirely with cursing Imam (peace be upon him).

And he also orated on the hearings of those wiled ones, as follows:

 What is your view concerned to the man – he meant by Ali- he never assist his brother – he meant by his brother Aqueel-, O ASh-Sham inhabitants, the censured Aba Lahab in the Qur'an is truly the cousin of Ali bin Abi Talib).

The historians commented that: Whenever Mu'awiyah delivered, he used to conclude his deliverance by his saying:

(O God! Aba Turab truly apostatized in Your religion, and repelled from your way, therefore; you imprecate him a disastrous imprecation, torture him a painful torment).

And it became a habit to praise by these terms over the platforms, and when Mu'awiyah installed Al-Mugheerah bin Shu'bah as a ruler on Al-Kufa, he entrusted to him not to be mild with whom, who shortens in Imam Ali (peace be upon him) cursing, and whoever shortens in asking God to have mercy upon U'thman, to blame the companions of Ali, and to isolate them.

He installed Al-Mugheerah as a ruler upon Kufa for seven years, through which he never left Imam Ali (peace be upon him) dispraise and abusing him.

By that, Mu'awiyah intended to turn the hearts of people away from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) loyalty, and to keep apart between the people and his principles, which began to chase him at his palaces, his (peace be upon him) principles concerned to the rule, and his political opinions, which used to disturb on him –Mu'awiyah- along with his (peace be upon him) death as much as along with his (peace be upon him) life.

The curses that Mu'awiyah and his rulers used to drop on Imam (peace be upon him) turned to show his advantages, Imam (peace be upon him) already appeared to the people as a splendid page in the history of humanity as a whole.

And he appeared for the community as alone announcer by the human rights, and the alone institutor of the social justice allover the Globe.

The years and eras passed on, and the features of that state, which antagonized the Imam (peace be upon him) became extinct, either it was of Bani U'maiyah, or of Bani Al-'Abbas, thus; no remainder from them is found.

Imam (peace be upon him) stills a single, and he is already authorized with climax of honor, here he is the alone symbol of humanity, and its eminent leader.

Then; his (peace be upon him) short role became a cipher in the rulers of this orient.

Thus; the official documents, which are carried about him (peace be upon him), became a symbol for every good rule, that aims to fulfill the momentous matters of nations.

Thus; the rule of Mu'awiyah became a symbol of treason, and treachery, and a symbol of the nations' oppression, and disdain.

* * * * * *

 

Ahlil-Bayit's (peace be upon them) virtues concealing:

Mu'awiyah with his all energies and powers strived to conceal the virtues of Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them), and to hide their glorious deeds on Muslims' behalf, and not to circulate that which is delivered by the prophet (S.) concerned to their virtues.

The historians comment that:

At the following of the year of peace contraction, Mu'awiyah traveled to Mecca for the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah, and he met Abdullah bin 'Abbas there, and told him as follows:

O Ibn 'Abbas, We truly wrote to the territories about forbidding from mentioning Imam Ali's and his family's virtues, then; you refrain from mentioning them).

Ibn 'Abbas replayed him with copious utterance, and eloquent argument, he directed arrows to wards him, and said as follows:

Would you forbid us from the Qur'an reciting?

Mu'awiyah replayed: No.

Ibn 'Abbas said: would you prevent us from interpreting it?

Mu'awiyah replayed: yes.

Ibn 'Abbas said: would we recite it, while we didn't know what Allah purposed by it.

Mu'awiyah replayed: yes.

Ibn 'Abbas said: which one is more obligated upon us, reciting it or proceeding according to it?

Mu'awiyah replayed: proceeding according to it.

Ibn 'Abbas said: how can proceeding according to it be available, while we didn't know what Allah purposed by what He (the Sublime) brought down for us?

Mu'awiyah replayed: you recite the Qur'an, and not to narrate about what Allah brought down in your right, and of that which the Messenger of God said in your right, then you narrate any thing save that.

Ibn 'Abbas mocked at him, and recited the saying of (the Sublime) Allah as follows:

(They would like to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths; and Allah refuses unless to perfect His light, though the disbelievers hat "that") please refer to the holy Qur'an, At-Tawbeh chapter no.9, verse no.32.

This disputation shows the deepness of tools which Mu'awiyah employed to struggle against Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them), and their virtues concealing, even the rancor reached by him to wards Imam Ali (peace be upon him), that; when U'mro bin Al-'As triumphed over Muhammad bin Abi Bakr in Egypt and killed him, he sized his letters, and his memories were at him, among them instruction of Imam Ali to him, which is the masterpiece of his political documents, Ibn Al-'As elevated it to Mu'awiyah, and when Mu'awiyah viewed at it, he entrusted to his closes, as follows:

(We never claim that this is not from the instructions of Ali bin Abi Talib, but we say: it is of Abi Bakr's instruction, which he left to him).

* * * * * *

 

Abstaining from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) mentioning:

The U'maid rulers went extravagantly to the far extant in struggling against the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), they already issued a command by killing every infant whose name was Ali, then; Ali bin Rabah heard by this commandment, so, he feared, and said: I will never permit any one to call me by Ali, and; my name is U'lai.

The historians comment that:

(The scholars and transmitters refrained from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) mentioning, and from narrating about him, because of fearing from the U'maids, and in case that they managed to narrate about him, they used to say: Abu Zainab said…).

Mu'ammar narrated about Az-Zuhri, from 'Akrama, from Ibn 'Abbas, that the Messenger of God (S.) said:

(Allah "The Sublime" truly deprived the sons of Israi'l from rain of Heaven, because of their opinion badness towards their prophets, and their difference concerned to their religion and He "the Sublime" truly took this nation by the rainless years, and deprived them from the rain of Heaven because of their abhorrence towards Ali bin Abi Talib).

Mu'ammar said: Az-Zuhri told me about a narrative when he was ill, which I never heard from him previously, he neither carried the likeness of it from 'Akrama before it nor after it, and when he is recovered, he regretted his telling about it, he said as follows:

O Yamani, keep on this narrative secretly, and don't mention my name in this concern to any body, since that these –meant by them the U'maids- never excuse any one concerned to Ali recommendation and mentioning him.

These are some of misfortunes that Muslims endured because of their loyalty to wards Ahlil-Bayit (peace be upon them), which is a part of their religion.

* * * * * *

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) policy related to his employees and rulers

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) intensively took precautions related to his employees and rulers, he didn't employ any one of them upon a country of the Islamic territories or confide to him with an action save when he achieved the reliance to his faith, and the capacity related to his departmental qualifications.

Rather; he (peace be upon him) never employed any one because of favoritism, whereas, he employed the most favorable of Muslims, like Malik Al-'Ashtar, Muhammad bin Abi Bakr, Sahl bin Hunaif, the learned one of nation Abdullah bin 'Abbas, and the likeness of them in whom the perfect expertness related to the rule and administration affairs is found.

He (peace be upon him) already supplied them with important messages through which he expressed about the rule affairs and the state policy, he also designated from their authorities and responsibilities.

And the most splendid of those political documents was his (peace be upon him) commitment to Malik Al-'Ashtar, it contained an eminent legislation for the purpose of martial, economical, and political reformation, which is most superior political document purposed to the society development, and to actualize its interests. 

* * * * * *

 

Looking about the rulers:

He (peace be upon him) used to inspect his rulers and employees affairs, rather; he (peace be upon him) used to send the watchmen to look about their activities, in case that he assumed a violation or default in the duties of any one of them, he secluded him, and punished him by most serious punishments.

He (peace be upon him) looked about every comportment issued from his rulers, while he (peace be upon him) knew about his ruler upon Basra, whom already was invited for a banquet of people from Basra inhabitants, thus he (peace be upon him) wrote him a message in which he blamed him in this concern.

Through his (peace be upon him) message to Ibn Hunaif he mentioned as follows:

(O' Ibn Hunayf, I have come to know that a young man of Basra invited you to a feast and you leapt towards it. Foods of different colors were being chosen for you and big bowls were being given to you I never thought that you would accept the feast of a people who turnout the baggers and invite the wealthy ones, look at the morsels you take, leave out that about which you are in doubt and take that about which you are sure that it has been secured lawfully.) Refer to Nahjil-Balagha vol.2 p.292 message no.45.

 * * * * * *

 

The Opportunists elimination:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) didn't approach one of the opportunists, who never be sincere to the right, whereas; they try to their benefits and desires, but they never realize the common interests, they are helpers of government to support the wrong, not to support the justice.

The community of Kufa contained great number of this kind of individuals, like Al-'Ash'ath, U'mro bin Al-Harith, Shibth bin Rib'ai, and the likeness of them of those, whose personal benefits are effected through the role of Imam Ali (peace be upon him).

They communicated with the government of Damascus, and took upon themselves the association with Damascus, so; they began to conspire upon Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) army to frustrate and spoil its manners, and that of his communities, for the purpose of his government overthrowing.

They already were the leaders of the army – according to the historians transmission- they committed a most repugnant crime along with the history, which is killing the chief of Martyrs Imam Hussein (peace be upon him), they certainly knew that in case the command became in order to him, their personal benefits would be distracted.

Therefore; his policy is the range of his father's (peace be upon him) policy, in which no shadow of criminals and treacherous ones is founded.

* * * * * *

 

The Greedy Ones Elimination:

Imam (peace be upon him) sees that principality is as a tool of the social reformation tools, and it is unallowable to be entitled save to those who are watchful in relation to their religion laws, those who don't be led to their desires and fancies, rather; it should be exploited to fulfill what the community benefit from. Therefore; it is disallowed to be entrusted according to the partiality.

Imam (peace be upon him) advises his judge Rifa'ah bin Shaddad through a message he sent him as follows:

(O Rifa'ah! You should know that principality is a deposit, and whoever made it a breach, therefore; may Allah's curse be upon him to the Day of Judgment, and whoever employed a treacherous one, therefore, Muhammad (S.) would be free from him in the present and hereafter life).

And in case that he (peace be upon him) felt with someone who had a tendency or desire to the principality, he would never appoint him for this responsibility, since, he will employ this position to achieve his goals and tendencies.

And when Talhah and Zubaiyr announced about their urgent desire towards authority, he refrained to response them to their desire.

* * * * * *

 

The Frankness and Flatness:

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) prominent purpose of his policy is the adherence to the frankness and flatness through all his political affairs, he never prevaricates nor he deceives, rather; he benefited from the clear way no crookedness is contained in it, rather; he behaved according to the style of his cousin the Messenger of God (S.), and went on his way, and stepped according to his steps perfectly.

And in case he adhered to the political traditions, which permits the people to practice the dissimulation and treachery for the purpose of reach to the rule, then no Caliphate would reach to the hand of U'thman.

Abdir-Rahmaan bin Awf insisted on him to pay him homage on a condition that he (peace be upon him) behave according to the way of the two Shaikhs, but he (peace be upon him) refrained from response him to his intention, then; he (peace be upon him) told him openly; that he will lead the nation according to the instructions of Allah's Book, which he   perceived, and according to the way of the Messenger of God (S.) and no other source according to which he depends in the Islamic legislation, and the policy of Islam.

He (peace be upon him) says: (if only cunning and deception was not in the Hell, I would be most artful from among the men in this concern).

And He (peace be upon him) denied whoever said that He (peace be upon him) unfamiliar with political affairs and that Mu'awiyah is familiar with them, therefore; he (peace be upon him) expressed about his opinion as follows: (By God, Mu'awiyah is not more cunning than I am, but he deceives and commits evil deeds. Had I not been hateful of deceit I would have been the most cunning of all men…). Refer to Nahjil-Balagha vol.2 p.129, sermon no. 200.

Then, He (peace be upon him) commented about the denied tools because of which some people behave for the purpose of their goals reach, like the treachery, cunning and slyness, and He (peace be upon him) denied those who justify these tools and describe them as the excellent artifices.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) based his policy according to this manner, which is brighten throughout the Islamic world, which is the cause of his (peace be upon him) eternality, and the humanity pride along with the generations and lands extension.

 

 

Advantages of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) on the tongue of Ibn 'Abbas

Ibn 'Abbas (May God be satisfied with him) said: I heard to the Messenger of God (S.) said:

(God donated five to me, and five to Ali, He donated to me the all kinds of speech, and donated to Ali all kinds of knowledge, and He (the Sublime) made me a prophet and made him a trustee, and He donated to me Al-Kawthar and donated to him Salsabeel (ÓáÓÈíá), and He (the Sublime) donated the revelation to me, and donated the inspiration to him, and I was guided to Him (the Sublime), and the gates of Heavens and veils are opened for him till he looked at me and I looked at him).

Then; the Messenger of God (S.) wept, so; I asked him: O Messenger of God! What did cause you weep, may my father and mother be sacrificed in behalf of you?

The Messenger of God (S.) replayed:

(O Ibn 'Abbas! First utterance of my Lord by which He (the Sublime) communicated me was as follows: O Muhammad! Look lower than you.

Thus; I looked at the veils are already burnt, and at the gates of the Heavens are opened, then I looked at Ali while he raised his head towards me, so I communicated him, and he communicated me, and my Lord (the Sublime) communicated me).

Thus; I said: O Messenger of God! About what thing your Lord did communicate you?

He (S.) replayed me:

(He communicated me as follows: O Muhammad, I appointed Ali as your trustee, your minister, and your successor after your death, then, you inform him about this command, here he is listening to you.

Thus; I informed him about this command, while I was at the witness of my Lord (the Sublime).

Then; he told me: I heard to this command and obeyed it.

Then; Allah (the Sublime) commanded the angles to give good omen to each other on the occasion of this event, and I don’t visit a group of angles of Heavens till they congratulated me on this occasion, and said:

O Muhammad! By who sent you by the right as a prophet, the happiness already entered all the angles because of Allah (the Sublime) making your cousin succeed to you.

And; I looked at the carriers of the Divine Throne, who already lowered their heads to wards the earth, thus; I asked: O Jibra'il! Why the carriers of the Divine Throne lowered their heads?

He replayed: O Muhammad, no an angle of the angles unless, He already looked at the face of Ali bin Abi Talib for the purpose of they be cheerful about him, save the carriers of the Divine Throne, they truly asked for a permission from Allah (the Sublime) at this moment, therefore; Allah (the Sublime) permitted them, so; they looked at Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him).

And; when I came down to the earth, I began to tell him about the event, while he began to tell me about it, thus; I knew that I didn't step on a place save it is reveled to Ali about it even he looked at it).

Then; I said to the Messenger of God (S.): O Messenger of God! Advise me.

The Messenger of God (S.) said:

(Be careful with Ali bin Abi Talib love, by Who sent me by the right as a Messenger, no a good action will be accepted by Allah (the Sublime) from a servant, till he would be asked about his loyalty to wards Ali bin Abi Talib).

Then; He (S.) commented that:

(You should be aware about that whoever died on the loyalty towards Ali, his action is accepted from him, and in case he came without the loyalty to wards him, anything of his actions will never be accepted from him, then it will be commanded by him to the Hell).

O Ibn 'Abbas! By Who sent me by the right as a prophet, the Hell is truly stronger wrath towards whoever detested Ali than towards whoever claimed that Allah has a son.

O Ibn 'Abbas! If only the approached angles, the prophets and Messengers agreed on Ali bin Abi Talib detesting in addition to what happened of their worship allover the heavens, Allah (the Sublime) shall punish them by the Hell).

I said: O Messenger of God is there any one, who detests him?

He (S.) said:

(O Ibn 'Abbas! Yes, people are said that they are of my nation detest him; Allah will never make a fortune for them in Islam.

O Ibn 'Abbas! Of their detesting sign to wards him is preferring others upon him, by Who sent me by the right, Allah never sent a prophet most generous than me, never He sent a trustee most generous than my trustee Ali).

Then, Ibn 'Abbas commented: Then I still for him –for Ali (peace be upon him)- as the Messenger of God (S.) commanded me by, and adhered to love him, which is most important act of mine according to my consideration.

* * * * * *

 

 

As-Sunneh inhabitants' view concerned to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) succession through their books

 

Many traditions concerned to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) succession of the prophet are mentioned in the books of As-Sunneh inhabitants, then we select some samples from them as follows:

 * * * * * *

First Tradition:

A narrative that Abu Dawood At-Tayalisi transmitted – It seems "about Ali's biography" in Al-Isty'ab book- about Ibn Abbas, who likely said: the Messenger of God (S.) addressed Ali (peace be upon him) as follows:

(You are the master of every believer after me).

 * * * * * *

Second Tradition:

Which An-Nisa'I carried about I'mran bin Hussein, who told as follows: The Messenger of God (S.) sent a battalion and used Ali bin Abi Talib over it, then Ali chose to marry a female slave, people denied him for his action, and four of them agreed on complaining him to the prophet (S.).

When they came on the Messenger of God (S.), one of the four individuals stood up and said: O Messenger of God, would you look at Ali, who behaved so and so.

The Messenger of God (S.) turned away from him, then; the second person stood up and said in such way of the first one said, thus He (S.) turned away from him, and the third one also stood up and said in such way that previous one said, so; the Messenger of God also turned away from him.

The fourth one also stood up and said in such way that his friends said, so; the Messenger of God (S.) turned towards them, while the wrath appeared on his features, and addressed them as follows:

(What would you want from Ali? Ali is from me and I am from him and he is the master after me upon every believer).

  * * * * * *

The Third Tradition:

The thing which Ahmad mentioned in his Musnad book vol.5, p.356, about Buraidah, who commented as follows: The Messenger of God (S.) sent two battalions to Yaman, Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) was employed upon one of them, and on the other one Khalid bin Al-Waleed was employed, on this occasion He (S.) said:

(In case that you met each other, then Ali must be upon you, and in case that you separated from each other, then every one of you is upon his battalion).

He said: Then; we met Bani Zubaida from Al-Yaman inhabitants, so; we attacked to them, then, Muslims took over the infidels, thus we fought against the fighters and captured the children.

Ali (peace be upon him) chose himself a woman from the captives, Buraida added: Then, Khalid sent a message with me to the Messenger of God (S.) told him about the event, when I came on the prophet (S.) and gave him the Message, which been read on his hearings, soon; I viewed the wrath appeared on his features.

I said: O Messenger of God, this is a position of who seeks refuge, you sent me together with a man and ordered me to obey him, so; I have done what you commanded me by.

The Messenger of God (S.) said:

(You should never defame with Ali, he is surely from me and I am from him, he is your master after me, and he is from me and I am from him, and he is your master after me).

And in the same style in An-Nisa'i's book p.17 in his high particularities concerning was mentioned as follows:

(O Buraida; you should never make Ali hateful to me, Ali is truly from me and I am from him, and he is your master after me).

  * * * * * *

The Fourth Tradition:

The thing which Al-Hakim carried about Ibn A'bbas, through which he mentioned the particularities of Ali (peace be upon him), he commented that: the Messenger of God (S.) said:

(You are the master of every believer after me).

  * * * * * *

The Fifth Tradition:

The thing which Ibn As-Sakan narrated about Wahab bin Hamzah, he said – according to what is mentioned in Wahab life concerning-:

I accompanied Ali through a tripe from whom I observed alienation, then; I talked to my self that; in case I returned back, I will complain him to the Prophet (S.), so; I returned back, and talked to the Messenger of God (S.) about Ali, thus I humiliated him. The Messenger of God said:

(You should never say this in Ali; he is the master upon you after me).

And At-Tabarani mentioned it through his book Al-Kabeer, in other style:

(You should never say this in Ali, since he is most authorized with you than the people after me).

  * * * * * *

The Sixth Tradition:

Ibn Abi A'sim narrated about Ali, who narrated about the prophet (S.) his saying as follows:

(Would I not be most authorized with the believers than themselves)?

They replayed: yes.

He added: (Whoever I was his master, then; Ali is his master).

Then; –We are Shi'ts- our sound sources carried about the Imams (peace be upon them) of the purified progeny in this concern successively, then; this a mount suffices what we aimed to in this concern, includes that; the verse of reign through the Sublime Allah's Book –particularly- supports what we mentioned about.

 * * * * * *

 

Manners of brotherhood according to Imam Ali’s (A.S.) view

Selections of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) sayings concerned to what the brotherhood should based on in the way of God.

First sermon:

Ali (peace be upon him) says as follows: People are brothers and whoever whose brotherhood is based on a pleasure of other than Allah's, so it is hostility, according to Allah’s saying:

"Close fellows upon that Day shall be enemies to one another, except the pious (ones)". Please refer to the Holy Qur'an, Az-Zukhruf chapter, verse no.67.

 * * * * * *

Second sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Whoever tested the brothers, he became familiarized with the essential nature of men.

 * * * * * *

Third sermon:

He (peace be upon Him) says as follows: How is the manner of your brother's sincerity with advisement, even if it was well or disgraceful, help him any way, and remain with him whenever he remained, and don't ask him for reward, since it is of inferiors habits.

 * * * * * *

Fourth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Show your friend your full interest, but never show him full confidence, and show him full consolation, but don't inform him about your all mysteries, by that you shall provide the wisdom its full right, and the friend his full right.

 * * * * * *

Fifth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Don't let your brother's cordiality towards you stronger than yours towards him.


 * * * * * *

Sixth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: The gaiety is trap of cordiality, and the cordiality is a valuable cognation.

 * * * * * *

Seventh sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Don't let the suspicion frustrates you in front a friend that the assurance made him your friend.

 * * * * * *

Eighth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: It is sufficient with yourself to be well-mannered, because of what you detested for other than you.

 * * * * * *

Ninth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Your brother has right on you, which is like that of yours on him.

 * * * * * *

Tenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: You should never establish your brother's right according to what happened between you and him, therefore; he is not your brother, whom you missed his right, and don't let your family be the most miserable of people because of your manners.

 * * * * * *

Eleventh sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Satisfy your brother's plea, and in case he hasn't a plea, then you find a plea for him.

 * * * * * *

Twelfth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: The one of you doesn't impel his brother to ask him the assistance, if he knows about his lack.

 * * * * * *

Thirteenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Don't wish whoever turns away from you, and don't turn away from whoever yearns for you.

 * * * * * *

Fourteenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: You should never increase the blame since it results the grudge, which leads to detestation, and its increase is of bad manners.

 * * * * * *

Fifteenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Be merciful towards your brother even if he violated you, and visit him even if he abandoned you.

 * * * * * *

Sixteenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Keep on your chief's misstep to the point of your foe's leaping.

 * * * * * *

Seventeenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Whoever advised his brother secretly, he already honored him, and whoever advised him openly, he already disgraced him.

 * * * * * *

Eighteenth sermon:

He (peace be upon him) says as follows: Of the man's generosity is his crying because of his passed age, and longing to his homeland and his old friends meeting.

 * * * * * *

Philosophy of Bidding by good according to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) opinion

Allah (the Sublime) commended Muslims of Book inhabitants through his Holy Book, who are the followers of anteceded prophets before the Prophet Muhammad (S.) mission, because of their awareness about this duty, which is bidding by good and forbidding from evil, and acting according to it.

And that which exposes about the ancestry of this duty in Islam since its earliest ages and its styles, and it is already a fixed duty through all its legislative stages, which the Prophets of God brought forth the generation by generation.

Allah the Sublime said:

(They are not "all" equal; of the population of Book is an upright nation, who recite the signs of Allah at various times of the night, as they prostrate themselves "to Him". They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and command beneficence and forbid evil, and vie swiftly in charitable deeds; and those are of the righteous) [please refer to the Holy Qur'an 'Al I'mran chapter 4, verse no. 113-114].

Reviving this obligation and making it is one of the community's interests, it is one of the Imam's (peace be upon him) permanent occupancies.

He (peace be upon him) treated with it through his sermons and speech –as it was mentioned in the sermons that Nahjil-Balagha contained- of numerous fields, from them as follows:

1-              It is truly a rational matter, and unavoidable to be comprehended so that to enrich the heedful individuality.

2-              It is truly a legislative matter to invite nation and individuals for action.

According to these two conceptions, he (peace be upon him) treated with it in several ways, he already authorized it with great importance from among the common legislative functions.

Then; he considered it as one of four branches of struggle (Holy war):

(Jihaad "Holy war" has four aspects: to others to do good, to keep away others from doing evil, to fight "in the way of Allah" sincerely and firmly on all occasions, and to detest the vicious. So, whoever asks others to do good provides strength to the believers; whoever desists others from evil humiliates the u8nbelievers; whoever fights sincerely on all occasions discharges all his obligations; and whoever detests the vicious and becomes angry for the sake of Allah, then will be angry in favor of him and will keep him and will keep him pleased on the Day of Judgment.) Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol, 2, p. 548.

It is worthy with us to understand the purpose of this obligation preferring upon the other duties in case that we observe the deeds of charity come to the extent which comes after the society straightness, and the ideological honesty –legislative and morality-, then; war will never be perfected save in case it comes by the way of ideological army.

All these branches are out of social consciousness of legislation and morals, and are of the lowest edge of behavioral adhering to them.

And in case that the stages of bidding by good deeds and forbidding from evil lead gradually to higher and higher, which begins from the denial by heart to the denial by tongue to the denial by hand, thus; denial by tongue has grades, while, denial by hand has grades also.

And in case that current states of bidding and forbidding are various in their seriousness, and significance, which necessitates this stage of denial or that.

Therefore; the eminent states which necessitate the just ruler intervention, and the nation as a whole, which perhaps reaches a grade of seriousness, then, no avoidance to deny by heart and tongue in this state, and the utmost of denial states is by the way of hand, which is the combat.

And this which the Islamic community used to face through the Imam's (peace be upon him) role, some times it is embodied in the homage deniers, who refused the law, and encroached upon Al-Basra city.

Thus; inviting them by good style to return back from their violation to the obedience by him (peace be upon him), so; they compelled him on fighting against them in Aj-Jamal war in Basra.

And other time it is embodied by the rebellions against the law in Sham under the leadership of Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan, who denied all the political ways, which Imam (peace be upon him) presented, for the purpose of making him return back to the law.

And other time it is embodied in the rebels who emerged against the law, who refused all the suggestions of peace are presented for them, but, they insisted on the sedition creation, rather; they involved in the terrorism against the peace of farmers, the women and children.

In these cases and the likeness of them it is an obligatory upon the sound Muslim to deny the corruption by his heart, and to deny it by his tongue openly, and to go through the rows of every movement, which the just ruler leads for the purpose of rectify the corruption by force in case that the order necessitated this procedure.

We observe that Imam (peace be upon him) put a condition for the denial by sword – which is the utmost stage of denial by hand-, the purpose of it is to elevate Allah's word, and not for the familial spirit, or the racism, or the particular benefit, or the personal sentiment.

And this condition concerned to all the human's activities, and in all the stages of bidding and forbidding from evils.

But; Imam (peace be upon him) exposed about this stage because of the influences seriousness are resulted from practicing them, which perhaps leads to the injury or killing.

Imam (peace be upon him) assumes that many of people fail in training this great function, so; they never bid by good deeds, and never forbid the evil doer.

Since, they assume that they will be effected because of executing that, for example exposing their life to the danger, or exposing their social relations to the shake and solicitude, or exposing their livelihood sources to the severance, and the likeness of these affairs…

He (peace be upon him) said:

(Commanding for good and refraining from evil are two characteristics of Allah, the Glorified. They can neither bring death nor lessen sustenance). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p. 574

And as we previously mentioned that revive this duty, and making it one of the continual apprehension of community, and one of active intellectual energies which drives the society, was of Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) permanent occupations.

And two factories carried him on that:

 * * * * * *

 

First of them:

He (peace be upon him) is the Imam of Muslims, and the prince of believers, and of his most significant functions concerned to the importance is to monitor his nation, and to teach it, when it lacks for knowledge, and to make the law practical within the consciousness of nation in its life.

 * * * * * *

Second of them:

Which is his (peace be upon him) personal matter concerned to his suffering from the internal and external problems of his community related to the political and rational matters.

Imam (peace be upon him) already proclaimed from this kind of people in his community severally, thus; he (peace be upon him) denied these peoples and he described them as corruptive peoples, since they didn't pay attention to their community and homeland concerning, but; they left this matter aside going after immoral personal wishes.

And in case that Imam (peace be upon him) became despaired from the active influence in this group, he (peace be upon him) already shall turn towards the common people with his complain, tries to stimulate them towards the practical adherence to their fair matter, and to arise their emotions and awareness to wards the prospective dangers, and admonishes them from the expectations of its group.

His (peace be upon him) complain and blended admonishments with bitterness and pain because of his daily serious sufferings from his community as a whole, and from this group of people within his community particularly.

No avoidance, that these and those people already heard from the Imam (peace be upon him) several times the likeness of the following complain which he delivered when he sermonized whoever takes upon himself the reign, while he is not qualified for the responsibility:

He (peace be upon him) said:

(I complain to Allah about persons who live ignorant and die misguided. For them nothing is more worthless than Qur’an if it is recited as if should be recited, nor anything more valuable than the Qur’an if its verses are removed from their places, nor anything more vicious than virtue nor more virtuous than vice). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.116. Sermon no.17.

According to his consideration, he (peace be upon him) already reached to a seriousness concerned to the Bidding and forbidding, the one of his most figurative and important will of his wills is for his two sons Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein the two Imams (peace be upon them).

Rather; this will is repeated two times, one of them was to his son Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him) through his broad will.

And other one is in his (peace be upon him) will to the two Imams Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them) when he willed to them, while he was in his bed of martyrdom, after Ibn Muljim Al-Muradi (May Allah the Sublime curse him) stroke him on his head by sword at the mosque of Kufa, when he (peace be upon him) raised his head up from prostrating.

He (peace be upon him) entrusted to his son Al-Hassan (peace be upon him) through the first will as follows:

(Ask others to do well; you will thus be among the good doers. Desist others from evil with your action as well as your speech and keep off, to the best of your ability, from he who commits it. Struggle for Allah as is His due; and reviling of a reviler should not deter you in matters of Allah). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, P.340.

And He (peace be upon him) said through the second will to his two sons Al-Hassanain (peace be upon them):

(I advise you (both) and all my children and members of my family and every one who receives my message….you should keep on your kinship respect and on spending for other. Avoid turning away from each other and serving mutual relations. Don’t give up bidding for good and forbidding from evil, otherwise; the mischievous shall gain position over you, and in case you prayed, then, no prayer of you shall never be granted…) sermon no.47 of Nahjil-Balagha from his advice which he delivered to his two sons Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).

 * * * * * *

 
 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the social rights

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) social philosophy is based on the belief that imposed the rights on properties of wealthy people for the benefit of poor ones, which is sufficient to remove the lack within the society.

He (peace be upon him) says as follows:

(Allah the sublime truly imposed the maintenance of poor people on the properties of wealthy ones, therefore; no a needy felt hunger unless because of what a wealthy enjoyed with, or because of the poor deprivation by the way of wealthy ones, therefore; Allah (the Sublime) has to ask them about this concern).

Therefore; it is sufficient of the wealthy people to pay their required legal dues, so that the needy people to be satisfied, not to inform them about this order or to eat food only, then; this appeared clearly through his (peace be upon him) instructions to his employees.

 In this concern he says to Abdullah bin Abbas, his employee over Basreh:

Thereafter; you have to observe what is collected at you of Muslim's harvests, and their plunder, then, you must divide it among them, so that you shall enrich them, then; you must send the remainder of it to us for the purpose of deliver it among them, with our best regards).

This view disagrees with the socialism, which nullifies the personal ownership, therefore; the wealthy people who are charged with alms giving will be missed, it also disagrees with the liberal capitalism, which gives the economical freedom to the eminence powers to emulate the powers whose capabilities are less, and it leads to the lowest groups' suppression.

Then; it never agrees perfectly with the modern interventionism, which insures some of needs of poor groups in the society, since that; the Imam (peace be upon him) assumes that, all the necessities of all the people should be fulfilled, even he commands his employees to search about the members of lowest class within the society, especially those, who hasn't a habit of their hands stretch, rather; they used to be contented by the little, therefore; they should be treated according to equity to the needy ones.

In order that, ruler should entrust to the humbleness inhabitants searching about those, and remove away their necessities, in addition to the necessities of orphans and decrepit ones.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) entrusted to Malik Al-'Ashtar, when he appointed him as a ruler on Egypt, as follows:

Therefore; be aware of the lowest class of those who have no way from the needy and wretched people, and those of misery and invalidity inhabitants, whereas; the contented poor ones and the suppliants, who usually come on you asking for alms are included within this class.

And of those among whom the alms are divided, whom their titles are indicated in His (The almighty) saying:

(Surely donations are only for the poor, and the indigent, and the ones collecting them, and the ones whose hearts are brought together, and the ransoming of necks, and the ones penalized (for debt), and in the way of Allah, and the wayfarer; an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Ever – Wise.) Refer to the Holy Qur'an, At-Tawbeh chapter, verse no. 60.

The one-fifth also is divided among those, among whom the Alms is divided, then among the kinsmen, the orphans, miserable ones, and the wayfarer, whereas; it was mentioned through His (The Sublime) saying as follows:

(And know that whatever thing take as booty, then the fifth of it is for Allah,  for the Messenger, for a near kinsman, the orphans, the indigent, and the way farer, in case you believe in Allah and what We sent down upon Our Bondman on the day of criterion, the day the two gatherings encountered, and Allah is Ever-Determiner over everything). Refer to the Holy Qur'an, Al-Anfal chapter, verse no. 41.

 * * * * * *

Exceptional situations:

The recent state is considered as a state of law, while; the retributive laws and constitutions will insure the common freedoms and the individual rights.

Then; this surety is common; rather it is broken in some of the unusual situations, whereto the laws permit by the dictatorship establishment, or by the state of emergency or the siege annunciating.

At one side; the head of state enjoys with dictatorial powers – in case that the regime exposed to a danger-, which permits him to adopt all the precautions, includes taking the positions of general powers completely, and confiscate the common freedoms, so that he can restrain the situations to its original way, which the French, American, and German's articles of laws recognized.

These Governments can announce the state of emergency, or siege according to the law, so; it allows for itself to suspend the possibility of enjoyment with what it see of rights and freedoms within a fixed period, so; it sizes the properties and individuals, and prohibits the assemblies, and arrests the individuals at their own domiciles, whom it considers as serious ones, and it replaces the military authority instead of the civil authority.

All that; in case the danger was worrisome, as for estimating this state, it returns to the executive power itself, in case that the legislative power agreed to it, so; it will go on in pursuing these authorities for long period.

All that happened in the twentieth century, after all that from which the humanity suffered till it returned to the rights, and the known freedoms establishment.

As for Imam Ali (peace be upon him), he already considered the impossibility of human rights, and freedoms transgression, neither through the wars nor through the peace.

We already knew that his government period was an exceptional case completely, which is invalidated to the recent regimes to refer to the dictatorship, and to be proper for the state of emergency announcement, but he (peace be upon him) didn't alter any thing, and he didn't permit himself to have any additional powers.

When he was appointed as Caliph upon Muslims, the situations were disordered, and whenever it became calm somewhat, Mu'awiyeh declared his insubordination in Syria.

In this time Talheh and Zubaiyr told him, that they will leave Madeenah for the purpose of minor pilgrimage fulfillment in Mecca, and that was happened when they presented their unacceptable demands lists, while he (peace be upon him) conceived that they will move towards the row against him, but he didn't prevent them from travel.

And if only this order happened on this day in any democratic regime in a state of warfare, then it had to prevent them, or arrest them at home.

When the rebels left Kufa and Basra, and began to set the assemblies, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) planed to prepare the militaries to move to wards Syria for the purpose of crucial battle, he didn't fight them in spite of his heads insistence, and in spite of the availability of possibility, that they have to fall upon Kufa after the militaries leave it to Syria.

 But the Imam (peace be upon him) refused this opinion for the reason of he considered the thing which lets him to fight against them is not available, while he didn't offer the exceptional situations as justification for this order.

Includes that; he (peace be upon him) didn't fight against them save when they committed crimes on the earth, and killed the soul, which Allah prohibited, and after An-Nahrawaan battle.

And after the rebels left Kufa other time, he (peace be upon him) also didn't fight against them save when they committed crimes newly.

As for the sequestration matter, we see that Imam (peace be upon him) refuses it absolutely, while he used to command his militaries and leaders by not to enforce the people on the action, or benefit from the animals, which are available at them save by the way of their satisfaction and by wages.

He (peace be upon him) also didn't permit with any other kind of sequestration, even he prevented his militaries from the water drinking save by the permission of its owners as we viewed.

All this shows the absolute belief by the Divine commands and prohibitions, while it is actually the marvel of the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him), which informs a challenge against all the civilizations, and in the forepart of them in the contemporary civilization, which considered the man as the principal value from among of the beings, for which all the possibilities are exploited, then would this present civilization plan to follow the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) in what he maintained in the man's concerning.

 * * * * * *

 

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) point of view concerned to the Human rights

Disputation concerned to Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) policy, and his eternal attitudes related to the human rights no avoidable should come to the common view of Islam in this relation.

His attitudes already used to expose about more truthful and clear evidence related to this view, he used to strive desperately in order to defend in behalf of them orally and practically to his final minute of life.

And when the political, economical, and social situations altered within the Islamic community, and the popular became as the honest companion Abu Thahr Al-Ghifari (may God be merciful with him) described:

(People were flowers without thorns, thus; they became thorns without flowers), his violent adherence to these rights and defense in behalf of them is increased, especially after he was appointed as Caliph.

Then; this appeared clearly through his daily engagements in the rule, through Muslims educating, and the Islamic principals' installation within their souls and on the head of them is the human rights principals' installation.

And; when the U'maids' party efforts appeared for the purpose of the caliphate organization exchanging into a snappish monarchy, which deprives the people from their rights, and sets up kinds of coercion and arbitrariness on them, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) grasped their intention of the corruption attempts, and the burst danger.

Therefore; his (peace be upon him) adherence to the principals of the human rights, to defend in behalf of them. So; no strangeness in this concern, he already was filled with its essence by the way of holy Qur'an, and behaviors of the honest prophetic, rather; he is more knowing with them with no an opponent.

No avoidable in this field to express about the following principal statements:

 

 

The First Statement:

Mixing between the notion of human rights and the rights of community according to the view of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), it results the impossibility of the human rights respect, and guard them save within the rights of community, freedom, and social justice.

Hereby; the power is not a goal itself yet according to his (peace be upon him) view, while he never strives for it yet on any day of his noble age, rather; he was most disinterested by it from among the community.

And when Muslims came on him for the purpose of paying him Homage, before that he took upon himself the responsibility of the new Islamic state system, therefore; it should be a tool in order to withstand against the wrongful and corruptive figures, and to restore the rights to their owners. One day; his student Abdillah bin Abbas came on him, while he was stitching his shoe. Bin 'Abbas became surprised, since, he found the prince of believers (peace be upon him) was engaged by his shoe stitching by himself, and he was over the Throne of vast regions in the old world, then. He (peace be upon him) addressed bin Abbas as follows:

How much this shoe evaluates – when He used to point to his shoe-?

Bin Abbas replayed: nothing it evaluates.

He (peace be upon him) then said:

By God! It should have been more dear to me than ruling over you, but for the fact that I have establish right and ward off wrong.

According to his view the authority means the rights establishment, and the struggle against the wrong and its inhabitants.

  * * * * * *

 

The Second Statement:

Perhaps; a claimer says: Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was truly engaged in deadly wars, and fought along with forty years, whereas; his saber effected hundreds of people, then; how can we offset between this situation and his defense in behalf of human rights?

This order may be obscured in behalf of some body concern to this inquiry. Then; we will illustrate it through the following two statements:

1-     Defense in behalf of human rights necessitated resistance against the wrong, injustice inhabitants, and every power of corruption that antagonized the human and his rights, previously and today,

2-     The historical statements agreed on that; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) didn't fight unless for the purpose of defense in behalf of justice and the right establishment, and for the purpose of defeat the wrong with its various styles, the social, and political injustice particularly.

 * * * * * *

 

The Third Statement:

Historically it is truly known that; his (peace be upon him) adherence to the right, and his acuity to establish it, made many of Quraish's authorities and the Arab's leaders antagonized him, and made them joined to Mu'awiya's rebels.

Rather; they especially felt inconveniently because of equity concerned to the donation deliverance among them (the heads) and common people, rather; he felt by this matter influence, but he didn't leave his purpose as much as an inch, on this occasion he (peace be upon him) declared about them:

(They are already familiarized with the justice and they observed it, heard it and got it, and they knew that the people are alike according to our view concerned to the donation deliverance, so; they hurried to the selfishness; away and down with them).

He (peace be upon him) was hard concerned to the treatment to the right, even in relation to his nearest people, and his  celebrated anecdote concerned to his daughter, who adorned herself by a pearl of treasury, thus he (peace be upon him) said: From where did she possess this?!! By God! I will cut her hand.

Abi Rafi'a, who was the treasurer of Ali (peace be upon him) said:

When I viewed at his earnestness concerned to this matter, I said:

By God; I used to adorn my nephew by it, but how can she obtain it in case that I didn't lend it to her?!! So; the prince of believers (peace be upon him) kept calm.

Once he (peace be upon him) wrote one of his employees reprehended him, while he received that; he gained something from the treasury and claimed that it is his personal right, then the prince of believers (peace be upon him) concluded his Message by the following phrase:

(By Allah, even if Hassan and Hussein had done what you did there would have been no leniency with me for them and they could not have won their way with me till I had recovered from them the right and destroyed the wrong produced by their unjust action). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2. p. 385.

 * * * * * *

 

The Fourth Statement:

Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) sample concerned to defense in behalf of human rights truly exceeds the Islamic society to cover the society of human beings allover the world.

In case that the human rights matter became habitual today (includes the one commits an error, when he associates it with the French revolution), while he neglects the other traditional civilizations, and at the foremost part of them is the Islamic civilization, which is proud of what it issued of rare sample in struggling against all injustice ways, and support the human rights.

This exemplar is Imam Ali (peace be upon him), therefore; the history of humanity will register the eternal attitudes that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) held concerned to defend in behalf of human rights.

May Allah be please with you, O Abal-Hassan; you already survived about forty years, while you used to carry the banner of Islam and the saber to struggle against the injustice and aggression, and to defend in behalf of the human rights.

The researcher about Imam Ali's (peace be upon him) positions related to the human rights matters can cognize easily, that the majority of his sermons, and the values by which he believed, and Muslims taught about it, they used to support the human rights and freedom, and struggle against every power that wrongs the human, and usurps the man his rights, in particular his political and social rights.

Which exposes about the acuity of the ideological political school which he established through his (peace be upon him) struggle for the purpose of the community of social and political of justice instruction.

He (peace be upon him) already drew Muslims' attention towards the danger of corruption which its signs began to appear through U'thman's role, thus; Imam (peace be upon him) preached in Medina, when he was elected as a Calipha, thus we mention his oration as follows:

(You should know that the same troubles have returned to you which existed when the prophet was first sent, by Allah who sent the prophet with faith and truth you will be severely subverted, bitterly shaken as in sieving and fully mixed as by spooning in a cooking pot till your low persons become high and high ones become low, those who were behind would attain forward positions and those who were forward would become backward.) please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.108 sermon no.16.

The right of nation appeared when it joined to the right of the person through the struggle of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in behalf of the human rights, then; pursuing the power after he was elected as an Imam appeared as an implementation of his (peace be upon him) opinions, by which he was known since his early childhood.

It was narrated about Ibn Abbas, that Ali (peace be upon him) delivered an oration in the following two days of his election as a Calipha in Medina, he said as follows:

(As for every land which U'thman sized, and every property of Allah's properties he donated, it surely would be resumed to the treasure home, since the old right would nothing omit it).

This bad situation which reached of the human rights violation forced a famous Arabian leader like Abdullah bin Az-Zubaiyr on saying:

(If only the Turkish and Dailam communities agreed to me on the straggle against the U'maids, I should support them for this order, then I would get triumph over them).

And more worthier thing on this occasion to be mentioned that, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) already was conscious related to the defenders in behalf of the human rights through his age, who became little, so; he expressed about that as follows:

(Know that- may Allah have mercy on you- you are living at a time when those who speak about right are few, when tongues are loath to utter the truth and those who stick to the right are humiliated). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.233.

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Imam Ali’s view concerned to the human history

Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) interest by the history was not an interest of novelist, and researcher about novels, and it is also not an interest of a politician, who looks for the political stratagems, and the ways concealment by which he treats with people grumbling, rather; it is an interest of a man of belief and mission, and a civilized leader, and a prospective thinker.

The novelist truly aims to search about the subject of amusement, and excitement through the history of bygones and their signs, and the politician looks for ways through the history by which he uses to face the impasses in his daily political activity, or according to which he puts his limited and temporary plans.

The historian uses to present the historical subject to this or that, through which they find their intention.

As for the civilized leader, the man of belief and mission, the man of state, he searches through the history to discover the roots of the human problem, and searches about persevering human endeavors for the purpose of this problem salvation in such away that consolidates the human ability of the material and ritual perfection.

He also consolidates his power for the purpose of a mount of happiness availability along with keeping on the human purity, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) used to treat with the history by this breath, and through this view.

Thus; he never paused at the details of events save by amount, which are quotations and illustrations, rather; he treated with the historical matter by a massive, and perfect view.

Hence; we rarely perceive that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) through his sermons and messages narrates about minor accidents and events, thus; the character of massiveness and generality prevails on his treatment with the historical matter.

We surely know about Imam Ali’s very care of history, and the extremity of his interest towards its matter, by the way of a text that came through his will, which he announced to his son Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him), he wrote him it, when he returned back from Siffin, as follows:

(O my child, even though I have not reached the age which those before me have, yet I looked into their behavior and thought over events of their lives, I walked among their ruins till I was as one of them. I fact, by virtue of those of their affairs that have become known to me it is as though I have lived with them from the first to the last. I have therefore been able to discern the impure from the clean and the benefit from the harm). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, p.342.

And he taught Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him) previously through this will, which made him acquainted about the ancient history for the purpose of warning and lesson, he (peace be upon him) said as follows:

(Enliven your heart with preaching, kill it by renunciation, energize it with firm belief, enlighten it with wisdom, humiliate it by recalling death, make it believe in mortality, make it see the calamities of this world, make it fear the authority of the time and the severity of some changes during the nights and the days, place before it the events of past people, recall to it what befell those who were before you and walk among their cities and runs, then see what they did and from what they have gone away and where they have gone and stayed. You will find that they departed from their friends and remained in loneliness. Shortly, you too will be like one of them. Therefore, plan for your place of stay and do not sell your next life with this world). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.2, P.340.

And this text carries us on the belief, that Imam (peace be upon him) talked so much about the historical matter through his political directions, and his intellectual education related to his society, and his administrative men, and related to his particular friends.

But the political and intellectual texts concerned to the historical element which Nahjil-Balaghah contained are very little, although the sermonic texts are based on the historical observation are numerous comparatively.

From here, a considerable enquiry shall face us, which is as follows:

From where Imam Ali (peace be upon him) derived his historical knowledge?

He surely expresses about himself as follows:

(I searched about their actions, and contemplated their news, thus I went on their ways).

Therefore; what is the tool by the way of which he reached to know about their actions for the purpose of considering them? And how it was possible for him to know about their news, then, to think about them?

We suppose that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) already depended on several sources in his historical knowledge as follows:

 * * * * * *

 

Firstly: the Holy Qur’an:

The Holy Qumran comes at the foremost of sources, from which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) derived his historical knowledge, since that; the Holy Qur’an contained many historical texts, which contained the tales of ancient peoples, and their ranks elevation, their deterioration, and many of their oblivion, and that was through the movement of prophecies along with the human history which the Holy Qur’an brought up, and telling about the quality of people’s responses in every nation and generation of Allah’s (the Sublime) missions, which the prophets (peace be upon them) preached.

The prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) was preferred upon the people after the Messenger of God (S.), concerned to knowing with the Qur’an related to its appeared and hidden meaning, its repealing, and repealed, the goals and purposes, the present dimension and that of future, and other than these purposes of Holy Qur’an.

His (peace be upon him) knowing by the Holy Qur’an is comprehensive, that contained all the Qur’an concerning from far and near.

The Qur’anic influence is clear extremely through Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) historical contemplation, from the program side and signification, as much as it is clear extremely in relation to his other entire signification sides.

Imam (peace be upon him) already talked about himself in this concern, he relieved about that, when he insisted on the Messenger's of God (S.) inquiry about the Holy Qur’an affairs from all its faces.

He (peace be upon him) said on this occasion as follows:

(By God! No a verse is brought down unless that I already knew about it in what concern it is brought down, and where it is brought down, my Lord donated me a judicious heart, and an inquisitive tongue).

Then, the contemporaneous people of his age witness for him in this concern are several, from that which is narrated about ‘Abdillah bin Mas’ud, who said as follows: (The Holy Qur’an is brought down in accordance of seven letters, no a letter of them unless it has an interior and obvious wards, whereas; Ali bin ‘Abi Talib is knowing with its interiority and obvious wards).

 * * * * * *

 

Secondly: The particular education:

The particular education that the Messenger of God (S.) particularized Ali with, is other source of His (peace be upon him) historical knowledge, in addition to it.

The narratives are already successively carried by the transmitters, and the writers of biography, and the historians from Muslims in spite of their doctrines and desires variety, they narrated that; the Messenger of God (S.) already particularized the prince of believers Ali (peace be upon him) with part of knowledge, for which he didn’t find any one from among his close relatives and companions, who is worthier with it save him.

On this occasion; Abdullah bin ‘Abbas said as follows:

By God! Ali bin Abi Talib is already donated nine tithes of knowledge, and by God! He already shared you in the tenth one tithe.

And that is narrated about the Messenger of God (S.) his saying as follows: Ali is my knowledge container.

And that which ‘Anas bin Malik narrated as follows: it is said to the Messenger of God (S.) as follows: O Messenger of God! About whom we shall dictate the knowledge?

He (S.) said: About Ali and Salmaan.

He (peace be upon him) also said as follows:

(The Messenger of God “S.” taught me about thousand sections of knowledge, from each a thousand sections of knowledge are opened).

He also said as follows:

(If only you know about what I know of invisibility which is hidden in behalf of you; thus, you have to emerge to the elevations, while you are crying because of your sins you committed).

He (peace be upon him) also said as follows:

(O brother of Kalb! it isn’t knowledge of hidden things, these matters have been acquired from him (namely in prophet) who knew them). Please refer to Nahjil-Balagha, vol.1, p.482.

In case that some of these texts apparently deal with knowing by the mysteries, and that Imam (peace be upon him) be already aware about some of instructions related to the future by the way of Messenger of God (S.), then; it is predominantly that he (peace be upon him) already became aware about the previous knowledge by the way of Him (S.).

 * * * * * *

 

Thirdly: The Prophetic way:

The prophetic way contained so much and various historical materials, from which is mentioned through interpreting and commenting on the Holy Qur’an, and of that which contained of narrating historical tales typically or elaborately, that no sign concerned to it is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was more knowing than ‘Alilbayit members (peace be upon them), and the companions commonly by what the Messenger of God (S.) said, behaved, and stabilized.

He (peace be upon him) already lived at the house of the Messenger of God (S.) since his early childhood, and the Messenger of God (S.) was sent, while Ali was close to him.

He (peace be upon him) was also the first one who believed with him, and didn’t leave him since the first minute of his mission to his (S.) death, save for the purpose of functions fulfillment out of Madeenah city, by which the prophet (S.) entrusted to him, which never last for long time.

From here; his complete devotion to have the prophetic instruction, and his perfect awareness about what he got from the Messenger of God (S.), Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was more knowing by the way of the Messenger of God (S.), and the Book of Allah (the Sublime).

 * * * * * *

 

Fourthly: the perusal:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) already perused all the historical scriptures are written in Arabic, and other languages, and are available in the Islamic territory, which witnessed his activity, particularly; when he (peace be upon him) transferred from Hijaz to Iraq, and the problems of rule and seditions he face enforced him on transferring between Iraq and Syria.

 * * * * * *

 

Fifthly: The ancient monuments:

Perhaps; the constructional monuments of ancient nations were among of historical knowledge sources at Imam (peace be upon him).

And that which satisfies this supposition, his saying through the previous text: and, I followed their steps, which show clear evidence on that; his intention was the constructional monuments.

Imam (peace be upon him) was familiarized with four territories of Islamic territories along his life: the Arabian Peninsula, Yeman, Iraq, and Syria, and we suppose that; he already visited the residential monuments of the ancient civilizations in these territories.

In cast that already was happened – and we likely consider its happening- thus; it is certainly that Imam (peace be upon him) didn’t visit these monuments a visitation of a tourist, who seeks the interest in addition to the culture, or a visitation of a specialist of monuments, who pauses at the details, rather; he visited them a visitation of a warning cogitative one, who accomplishes his speculative knowledge by the peoples and groups destinies, by the way of observing the remainders and of their towns and institutions are effected with the ruination after its builders subsided, and lost their power to continue, so they are blotted out.

This is – as we see- the appeared sources and those which are imagined, and expected ones from which Imam Ali (peace be upon him) derived his historical knowledge.

 * * * * * *

 

Selections of Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) sermons and instructions

He (peace be upon him) said in concern to the knowledge acquisition as follows:

1- O people, you should know that of faith perfection is the knowledge acquisition, and acting according to it, therefore; you should know that the knowledge acquisition is worthier than the wealth acquisition, the wealth is divided and granted for you, that an Impartial already divided it among you, and granted it for you, and the science is stored at its carriers, thus; your are commanded by request it from its inhabitants, so; you must ask for it.

2- The Scholar has three signs: the knowing, the forbearance, and the calmness, and the mannered has three signs: he disputes with whomever above him by the violating him, oppresses whoever lower than him by the ascendancy, and he supports the oppressors.

And of his (peace be upon him) short sermons:

1-           Be magnanimous, and not to be spendthrift, be estimator, and not to be a stingy.

2-           Not to be shameful because of little giving, since; depravity is less than it.

3-           I become astonished because of the miser, who hastened the poverty, from which he run away.

4-           The forbearance is two: a forbearance upon what is detested, and forbearance upon what is appealed, and the forbearance is from the belief in the likeness of the head from the body, and no advantage of a body without a head, and no advantage of a belief without forbearance.

5-           No tears became dried unless because of the hearts sternness, and the hearts are not be stern unless because of the sins multitude.

6-           Whoever didn’t save his tongue, he should be regretful, whoever didn’t learn, he should be ignorant, whoever didn’t become forbearer, he would never be prudent, whoever didn’t refrain from bad act, he would never discerned, and whoever never discerned, he would be offended, and whoever be offended, he would never be venerated.

7-           The planning before performance saves you from repentance.

8-           By the vastness of good manners, the treasures of livelihood are available.

9-           Consider your speech in comparison with your actions, then, you speech will be less save in good concern.

10-      The charitable and offensive ones should never be at one estimation of yours, since this is just a renouncing for the charity inhabitants concerned to the charity.

 

 

A sample of Imam Ali’s (peace be upon him) sermons are emptied from (Alif) an Arabic letter

It was narrated that the companions of the prophet (S.) assembled, so they discussed about the letters, and agreed on that, the (Alif) an Arabic latter is more usable in the speech, therefore; He (peace be upon him) improvised a long sermon with out (Alif) Arabic latter, thus; we managed to explain its meaning as follows:

(I praised who, his grace is greater, his benefaction is comfortable, his mercy preceded his wrath, his word is completed, His will is fulfilled, and his case matured.

I praised him a praise of who acknowledged by His Divinity. Shows humility to towards His servitude, freed himself from the error, appropriated in his Singleness, expecting the forgiveness from Him that rescues him on a day through which he is occupied in behalf of his nearest kin, and son.

 

 

What is composed of poems in the right of Imam Ali (peace be upon him?)

Abdullah bin Rawaha composed poems concerned to the right of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) thus, we mention their meanings as follows:

May his presence on the day of Badr be ease on me, and observing him took upon himself good concentrated striking.

As if I see him with active position, for which the head of Al-Kami was cut.

And the scapegoat of people left, while he dropped on the ground, and died, you assume that his body was signed with saffron.

A slain one, the lionhearted figure admitted in his mind, and the hyena on the other side approaches to him to eat.

Al-Fadhl bin 'Abbas also composed poems, thus we explain their meanings as follows:

Ali was the successor of Muhammad after his death, and he was his friend on the positions completely.

 He is truly the trustee of the Messenger of God (S.), and the son- in-law of his own, and he was the first one, who performed the prayer, and never be dispraised.

U'tba bin 'Abi Lahab bin 'Abdil-Mut-Talib also recited poems, thus we explain their meanings as follows:

Banu Teem took upon reign wrongly related to Banu Hashim right, and derived Ali away from his responsibility precedence.

They neither care with the prophet's kinship related to him, nor do they compare between him and whomever they appointed to this position related to the knowledge.

Al-Mugheerah bin Al-Harith bin Abdil-Mut-Talib also recited poems, thus we mention their meanings as follows:

O circle of death be patient, and not to let the army of Ibn Harb terrors you, since the right is already appeared.

And be ascertained that whoever became opposite you, he truly became wretched, and lost himself.

The successor of the Messenger of God (S.), your leader, and the son in law of his own is among you, and the Book of Allah is already circulated.

Rabee'h bin Al-Harith bin Abdil-Mut-Talib also recited poems, thus we explain their meanings as follows:

I didn't assume that the role is transferred from Hashim tribe then from Abi Hassani.

Would he not be the first one who prayed towards their Qubla, and he is most aware about verses and prophetic way than people.

And he was the latest one who left the prophet, and Jibrail was the assistant to him through washing and shroud performance of the prophet (S.).

Who had particularities he owned, whom you suspect in, and none among people is distinguished with good save him.

What caused you refrain from him, so that we shall inform him, here is your homage paid is the principal of seditions.

And Abdil-Hussein Khalaf Ad-D'ami recited poems, thus we mention their meaning as follows:

I am adorer and the adoration flows through my blood and Allah witnesses that; what existed in to my heart is the same as on my tongue.

I adore who he is a sign of marvels, and on the leftover he lived as a luxurious man.

He is the lion of Hashimids, and their saber in case they advanced for the battle and their Book in case they refrained from battle.

The angles already printed his name on the Throne, before that Adam been created.

He just became the gate of knowledge, and a saber with strong hand for struggle.

He amounted the deaths, while he alive, as if he was going tried hard, in the likeness of enamored one.

U'mar already said in the right of who without whom no furniture is spread out for a Muslim.

If never Ali existed, U'mar would be vanished, and no a present life smiled to him.

Whoever in the likeness of Haiydar of Khaibar in concerned to bravery, who rendered Marhab, who is colored with blood.

Whomever the solar of this being retuned for him, and irrigated the heads of infidels' bitterness by cups of colocynth.

Whoever appeared humbly at his prayer niche, while he was the prince wails in the likeness of a grievant?

He with rough garments spent his life ascetically, while the gold was under his disposition, he didn't say I must pillage.

He who is a father no a ruler over the citizens, Nahjil-Balagha is the best sing of his own.

Whoever in the likeness of him, the composers of books showed Ali has no a sample.

His style concerned to Al-Balagha is difficult on whoever didn't attach to the Mission.